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Jeff E. Goodwin

This investigation held concurrent visual feedback frequency at 50% in the acquisition phase and manipulated three different feedback schedules while comparing those to a 0% feedback frequency. In an assessment of dynamic postural stability, young, healthy adults performed 20 acquisition trials and four retention trials 48-hr later on a circular platform that moved in the anterior/posterior and medial/lateral axes simultaneously. Three concurrent feedback schedules were manipulated: a fade schedule consisting of high relative frequency of concurrent feedback early in the acquisition phase which was systematically reduced throughout acquisition (e.g., 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 0%), a constant schedule consisting of a uniform scheduling of concurrent feedback on every other acquisition trial, and a reverse fade group consisting of a schedule exactly opposite to that of the fade group. A no concurrent feedback group was also utilized to determine if feedback was necessary to learn the balance task. Acquisition and retention results revealed the concurrent groups performed with significantly greater accuracy and stability than the no concurrent feedback group. There were no significant differences between the three concurrent feedback schedules. Results indicate that manipulating concurrent feedback scheduling did not produce similar results to those investigations manipulating knowledge of results scheduling.

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Vera Ramos, Eliana V. Carraça, Teresa Paiva and Fátima Baptista

The aim of this study was to identify the best predictor of sleep quality (SQ) among physical behavior or capacity-related variables, namely physical activity, sedentary time, fitness, and physical function (activities of daily living) of independent elders using a representative sample of Portuguese aged 65 years and older (N = 437). SQ and activities of daily living were evaluated by a questionnaire, sedentary time, and physical activity through accelerometry, and physical fitness by means of the Senior Fitness Test. The logistic regression analysis revealed that activities of daily living measured by the Composite Physical Function was the only explanatory variable discriminating between poor SQ and good SQ. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the best trade-off between sensitivity and specificity to discriminate older adults with poor SQ and good SQ was 20 points in the Composite Physical Function (sensitivity = 57.9%; specificity = 60.9%; area under the curve = 0.600, 95% confidence interval [0.536, 0.665], p = .003). Better physical function seems to be associated with better SQ in independent elders.

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Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Michael Doppelmayr and Günter Amesberger

The present study examined the effect of 4 physical-load conditions on interference control throughout a period of 45 min. A sample of 52 sport students was assigned to either a no, a low, an alternating low to moderate, or a moderate physical-load condition. A modified Eriksen-flanker task was administered in the preexercise period, 7 times during the exercise, and twice after completing the exercise. Significant interaction effects of time and condition, and significant time effects within condition on the reaction time of congruent stimuli and errors on incongruent stimuli, suggest a specific in-task effect of the alternating low to moderate and moderate physical-load conditions. Thus, it was concluded that moderate physiological arousal influences interference control by an increase of information-processing speed in tasks that require less cognitive control (congruent condition), which is at the expense of accuracy in cognitively more demanding tasks (incongruent condition).

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Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang

Background: To establish evidence for the validity of the Sedentary Behavior Record (SBR) instrument using a criterion measure through a proxy of direct observation. Methods: A total of 27 study participants (aged ≥18 y; 15 male) participated in this study. Throughout a 4-day measurement period, each participant recorded their sedentary behavior using the SBR in 10-minute blocks every night. During the measurement period, participants also wore wearable Autographer cameras as a proxy for direct observation. Autographer data were aggregated into 10-minute intervals. To establish evidence of validity, contingency (C) and Kappa (K) coefficients were calculated between the SBR and the Autographer data. For C and K, agreements were determined between 2 measures every cell. The coefficient C was compared across domains, types, and time of day, and K was compared across types of day and times of day. Results: Overall, the coefficients C and K were acceptable (C = .70) and substantial (K = .64), respectively. Among all domains, the highest C was reported for work-related sitting (C = .87). Values of C ranged from .49 to .91 among all activities; the highest accuracy was for work-related, screen-based sitting. Conclusions: This study suggests that the SBR is an acceptable self-report measure of sedentary behavior in adults.

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen and Xiaoxia Zhang

The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental motor skills (FMS; including locomotor and object-control skills), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior among young Hispanic and non-Hispanic children. Using the prospective research design spanning one academic school year, we recruited 671 children (6.96 ± 1.6 years, 46% girls) from four primary schools in North Texas, 300 of whom were Hispanic and 371 non-Hispanic children, with 90% of the Hispanic and 74% of the non-Hispanic children from low-income families. All participants completed the PE Metrics FMS assessment and wore Actical accelerometers. Hispanic children demonstrated a lower level of MVPA on school days than their non-Hispanic peers. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, both locomotor and object-control skills significantly predicted school-based MVPA for the non-Hispanic groups, while only object-control skills significantly predicted MVPA for the Hispanic group. For both ethnic groups, locomotor skills significantly predicted school-based sedentary behavior. The findings shed light on future motor competence–based interventions for physical activity promotion and obesity prevention among young Hispanic as well as non-Hispanic children.

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Ítalo R. Lemes, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Jamile S. Codogno, Luana C. de Morais, Kelly A.K. Koyama and Henrique L. Monteiro

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of MetS worldwide is increasing. There is no study investigating the economic burden of MetS, especially in developing countries, on medication-related expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of medication-related expenditures with MetS and to explore how physical activity (PA) may influence this association. Methods: A total of 620 participants, 50 years or older, randomly selected in the city of Bauru, Brazil. Participants were followed from 2010 to 2014, and data on health care expenditure were collected annually. PA questionnaire was applied at baseline, 2 (2012), and 4 (2014) years later. Results: Mean age was 64.7 (95% confidence interval, 64.1–65.3). MetS was associated with higher medication expenditure related to diseases of the circulatory (P <.01) and endocrine (P <.01) systems. MetS explained 17.2% of medication-related expenditures, whereas PA slightly attenuated this association, explaining 1.1% of all health care costs. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that MetS has a significant burden on health care expenditures among adults, whereas PA seems to affect this phenomenon significantly, but in low magnitude.

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Julie D. Guldager, Anja Leppin, Jesper von Seelen and Pernille T. Andersen

Background: The reasons for the mixed evidence of the effectiveness of school-based physical activity programs can be many, including implementation challenges. Studying program implementation can potentially contribute to enhancing effectiveness, the design of future interventions, improved implementation, and the interpretation of outcomes. Methods: For this process evaluation, individual interviews were conducted with 16 teachers who had implemented the program “Active All Year Round” in a fifth-grade school class (students aged 9–11 y) in 2017. Through systematic text condensation feasibility and barriers of program implementation, perceived program reach and the programs’ influence on social cohesion were identified and discussed. Results: Teachers described the program as very feasible to implement and identified very few implementation barriers, the most prominent being time constrains. Perceived program reach was very high, and teachers reported that those students who are less confident when it comes to physical activity did not have differential participation than those feeling more confident about physical activity. Finally, the program was perceived to positively affect social cohesion in class. Conclusions: Active All Year Round is a standardized, flexible, and easily implemented program in Danish schools. Future studies are needed to study implementation from a student’s perspective and/or students’ role in and experiences with competition-based health programs.

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Yara Fidelix, Mara C. Lofrano-Prado, Leonardo S. Fortes, James O. Hill, Ann E. Caldwell, João P. Botero and Wagner L. do Prado

Background: Physical activity may be as effective as some drugs for improving psychological outcomes; however, vigorous exercise may be needed for improving these outcomes in adolescents with obesity. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of low- and high-intensity training on self-esteem and symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescents with obesity. Methods: A total of 62 pubertal adolescents with obesity (age 15 [1.5] y, body mass index 34.87 [4.22] kg/m2) were randomized into high-intensity group (HIG, n = 31) or low-intensity group (LIG, n = 31) for 24 weeks. All participants also received nutritional, psychological, and clinical counseling. Body composition and measures of depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem were assessed at baseline and after 24 weeks. Results: Depressive symptoms decreased significantly in both HIG (d = 1.16) and LIG (d = 0.45) (P ≤ .01). Trait anxiety decreased after 24 weeks for HIG (d = 0.81, P = .002) and LIG (d = 0.31, P = .002). No changes were observed in state anxiety or self-esteem. Conclusions: Results from the present study demonstrate that 24 weeks of multidisciplinary intervention improves depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescents with obesity; however, the magnitude of changes is higher in HIG compared with LIG.

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Ryan D. Burns, Youngwon Kim, Wonwoo Byun and Timothy A. Brusseau

Background: To examine the relationships among school day sedentary times (SED), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with gross motor skills in children using Compositional Data Analysis. Methods: Participants were 409 children (mean age = 8.4 [1.8] y) recruited across 5 low-income schools. Gross motor skills were assessed using the test for gross motor development—third edition (TGMD-3), and physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Isometric log-ratio coordinates were calculated by quantifying the relative proportion of percentage of the school day spent in SED, LPA, and MVPA. The associations of the isometric log-ratio coordinates with the TGMD-3 scores were estimated using general linear mixed-effects models adjusted for age, body mass index, estimated aerobic capacity, and school affiliation. Results: A higher proportion of the school day spent in %MVPA relative to %SED and %LPA was significantly associated with higher TGMD-3 total scores (γ MVPA = 14.44, P = .01). This relationship was also observed for the ball skills subtest scores (γ MVPA = 16.12, P = .003). Conclusions: Replacing %SED and %LPA with %MVPA during school hours may be an effective strategy for improving gross motor skills, specifically ball skills, in low-income elementary school-aged children.