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ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski and Kip Webster

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Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann and Susan Hillier

The aim of this study was to describe and undertake an initial evaluation of a student-led assessment service for children with possible motor-skill difficulties. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional descriptive clinical data collected from 2015 to 2016 was undertaken. Children (N = 102) were assessed in preschools by physiotherapy students (supervised by qualified physiotherapists). Key outcomes included the following: Children’s Activities Scale, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, and demographic/service-usage/onward referral statistics. The results highlighted that for every five children referred/assessed, two were at risk of motor-skill difficulties (∼43%). About 66% of children were subsequently referred on or monitored (40% requiring multidisciplinary follow-up). Conversely 34% of children did not require further services. In conclusion, a student-led assessment service may be a sustainable and feasible option to assist children at risk of motor-skill difficulties, enabling onward referral. Additional evaluation is required to garner stakeholder feedback.

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Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl and Stamatis Agiovlasitis

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior may contribute to physical function in adults with intellectual disability (ID). This study examined whether objectively measured PA and sedentary behavior levels are associated with physical performance in adults with ID. Fifty-eight adults with ID (29 women and 29 men, age 44 ± 14 years) underwent a measurement of physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and PA and sedentary time using a hip-worn accelerometer (wGT3X-BT; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL). Moderate PA and age were significantly associated with the SPPB score (r = .39 and .34, respectively; p < .01). A hierarchical-regression model with moderate PA and age as independent variables indicated that moderate PA was a significant predictor of SPPB (p < .001; R 2 = .153), but age was not (p = .123; R 2 change = .036). Overall, moderate PA was significantly associated with the SPPB score, even after accounting for age, in adults with ID.

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Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele and Xihe Zhu

The purpose of this study was to describe the reflections of adults with visual impairments about learning to run during K–12 physical education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and eight adults (age 22–35 years) with visual impairments served as participants. Primary data sources were semistructured, audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective interview notes. Based on a thematic data analysis process, two themes were developed: (a) “I wouldn’t expect anything better from you”: running instruction in physical education and (b) “You look like the guy in the crosswalk signal”: making up for the shortcomings of physical education. The narratives portraying these themes highlight the lack of instruction that took place in physical education, and the fact that no running instruction occurred at all. These findings indicate that professionals working with individuals with visual impairments should use instructional strategies that will allow for maximum access to learning fundamental movement skills such as running.

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Scott L. Bruce and Kyra Dorney

Current literature indicates loss of consciousness occurs in about 10% of concussions. Posturing presentations represent brain injuries and a loss of consciousness. The purpose of this study was to observe video evidence of football-game-related concussions to determine the rate in which a posturing presentation occurs in reported concussion. Over the course of three National Football League and three National Collegiate Athletic Association football seasons, 103 videos of 805 reported concussions met the inclusion criteria; 35 videos demonstrated a posturing presentation, for a rate of 33.98%. Our study indicates that the published statistic regarding loss of consciousness (occurring only about 10% of the time) may be too conservative.

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Samantha J.D. Jeske, Lawrence R. Brawley and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

Videoconferencing is a novel method for overcoming time and transportation barriers to leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) interventions. This study examined the feasibility of a group videoconference intervention on LTPA self-regulatory skills training in a sample of nine adults with spinal cord injury (SCI). Session implementation checklists and self-report surveys were administered during four weekly sessions to assess intervention management, group processes, intervention resources, and initial efficacy. Attendance rate was high (91.7%), and the average weekly session duration was 79.6 min. Participants reported high ratings of group cohesion, facilitator collaboration, session content comprehension, and ease in operating the videoconference platform. Knowledge sharing among the group ranged from 18 to 58 exchanges per session, demonstrating learning and group cohesion. LTPA frequency increased among 44% of participants, and 22% of participants achieved the SCI-specific aerobic guidelines. Overall, group videoconferencing holds promise for LTPA support among adults with SCI. Long-term research is warranted to test LTPA self-regulatory and behavioral effects.

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James L. Farnsworth II, Todd Evans, Helen Binkley and Minsoo Kang

Context: Previous research suggests that several knee-specific patient-reported outcome measures have poor measurement properties. The patient-reported outcomes knee assessment tool (PROKAT) was created to improve assessment of knee-specific function. Examination of the measurement properties of this new measure is critical to determine its clinical value. Objective: Examine the measurement properties of the PROKAT. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Clinical athletic training setting. Patients or Other Participants: The pilot study included 32 student-athletes (mean age = 20.78 [1.01], males = 56.30%). The full study included 203 student-athletes (mean age = 21.46 [4.64], males = 54.70%) from 3 separate institutions. The participants were recruited for both the pilot and full study using face-to-face and electronic (eg, email and social media sites) communications. Intervention(s): Evaluation of the measurement properties of the PROKAT occurred using the Rasch partial-credit model. Main Outcome Measures: Infit and outfit statistics, item step difficulties, person ability parameters, category function, item and test information functions, and Cronbach alpha. An independent samples t test was used to evaluate the differences in injured and noninjured athletes’ scores. Results: The Rasch partial-credit model analysis of pilot test items and qualitative participant feedback were used to modify the initial PROKAT. Evaluation of the revised PROKAT (32 items) indicated 27 items had acceptable model–data fit. The injured athletes scored significantly worse than the noninjured athletes (t 188 = 12.89; P < .01). The ceiling effects for the PROKAT were minimal (3.9%). Conclusions: A major advantage of this study was the use of the Rasch measurement and the targeted population. Compared with alternative knee-specific patient-reported outcome measures (eg, Knee Injury Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form), the PROKAT has low ceiling effects in athletic populations. In addition, evidence suggests the measure may be capable of distinguishing between injured and noninjured athletes.

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Steven K. Holland and Justin A. Haegele

The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning that first-year adapted physical education teachers with a master’s degree ascribed to their occupational socialization experiences. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and occupational socialization theory was adopted as the theoretical framework. Five teachers participated in this study. The sources of data were a semistructured focus group interview, semistructured one-to-one interviews, and reflective interview notes. Thematic development involved a three-step analysis process informed by the research approach. Three themes were constructed: (a) interactions with individuals with disabilities and activity experiences, (b) recruitment of adapted physical education teacher education students, and (c) graduate training and initial workplace experiences. The constructed themes provide unique insight into how teachers are socialized into adapted physical education and the meaning they ascribe to various socialization experiences, such as the limited impact that interactions with individuals with disabilities had on the decision to pursue this career.