Two-hundred and three college women participated in a 16-minute strength and conditioning group fitness class. Participants were randomly assigned to a class that featured either appearance-focused motivational comments by the instructor (e.g., “Blast that cellulite!”) or function-focused comments (e.g., “Think of how strong you are getting!”). Body satisfaction from pre-test to post-test increased overall, but those in the function-focused (as opposed to appearance-focused) condition experienced a significantly greater increase in body satisfaction. A similar pattern was observed for positive affect. Additionally, those in the function-focused condition described the class in more positive terms and reported experiencing less body surveillance during the class. These findings are consistent with research suggesting that exercise can improve mood and body satisfaction, but also suggest that a more function-focused class can lead to even greater improvements. The motivational comments fitness instructors use may have a notable impact on women’s mood, body satisfaction, and body surveillance.
Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly
Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio
The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify turning points in eating disorder recovery in collegiate female athletes compared to non-athletes. The sample included 12 varsity athletes and 17 non-athlete college students who previously met criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN; n = 17); Bulimia Nervosa (BN; n = 3); Binge Eating Disorder (n = 1); or both AN and BN (n = 8). Participants completed individual interviews and responses were analyzed inductively. There was some commonality in the athletes’ and non-athletes’ experiences. For example, the most frequent turning point for both groups was Insight/Self Realization. Regarding the next three most frequent turning points, athletes reported Sport Performance, Confrontation, and Support/Concern from Others, whereas non-athletes reported Professional Treatment, Hitting a Low, and Support/Concern from Others. This study contributes to the sparse literature on competitive athletes’ recovery. Results indicated that athletes’ turning points differed from non-athletes; therefore, findings are discussed concerning athlete-specific treatment recommendations and suggestions for coaches.
ZáNean McClain, Daniel W. Tindall and E. Andrew Pitchford
Brandon R. Rigby, Ronald W. Davis, Marco A. Avalos, Nicholas A. Levine, Kevin A. Becker and David L. Nichols
The purpose of this study was to compare acute cardiometabolic responses to 3 modes of treadmill exercise in adults diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Eight elderly adults with PD (67.9 ± 3.0 yr) completed 1 session each on a land, aquatic, and antigravity treadmill at 50% body weight. Participants walked from 1 to 3 mph in 0.5-mph increments at 0% grade for 5 min at each speed. Heart rate, energy expenditure, blood pressure, and rating of perceived exertion were measured at rest and during exercise. All variables except diastolic blood pressure increased with speed on all treadmills (p < .001). At all speeds except 1.5 mph, heart rate was higher on the land treadmill than the antigravity treadmill (p < .05). Exercising on an aquatic or antigravity treadmill elicits similar submaximal physiologic responses to exercise on a land treadmill in adults with PD.
Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong
Adapted physical activity (APA) is characterized by a strong orientation to professional practice. Currently, there exists limited empirical research about the professional status of APA in the context of rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe and understand the professional status, role, and work tasks of APA specialists in Norway. For the purpose of the study, the authors conducted group interviews with APA specialists and individual interviews with unit leaders at six rehabilitation institutions in the national specialist health care services. The results highlight the content of the work tasks, the roles in the cross-professional teams, the status in the institutions, and what the participants perceive to be the knowledge base for their profession. Although these results may be specific to the Norwegian context, the authors also discuss possible implications of their findings for APA in an international perspective.
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura and Minoru Hoshiyama
Brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system followed by coherence analysis to assess neural connectivity in 10 healthy right-handed adults to clarify differences in neural connectivity in brain regions during action observation from several perspectives. The subjects were instructed to observe and memorize or imitate the hand action from a first-person or second-person visual perspective. The brain activity in coherence was modified among frontal and central, sensorimotor, and mirror neuron system-related regions based on the visual perspectives of finger movements. The regional activity in coherence changed similarly under the imitation and observation tasks compared with the condition of observing static hand figures. The information from different visual perspectives of body movements was processed in the frontal–central regions related to sensorimotor processes and partially in mirror neuron system.
Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi
This study aimed to determine the relationship between postural asymmetry and falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In total, 28 patients with PD were included. Postural control was analyzed in bipedal, tandem, and unipedal standing. Center of pressure (CoP) parameters were calculated for both limbs, and asymmetry was assessed using the asymmetry index. Logistic regression was used to predict/classify fallers through postural asymmetry. The Spearman correlation was performed to relate asymmetry and falls number. Poisson regression models were created to predict the number of falls in each condition. The results demonstrated that asymmetry can classify 75% of fallers and nonfallers. Asymmetry in anteroposterior-mean velocity of CoP in unipedal standing was related to the number of falls. Poisson regression showed that anteroposterior-mean velocity of CoP predicts falls in PD, indicating that increased asymmetry results in a greater number of falls. Anteroposterior-mean velocity of CoP seems to be a sensitive parameter to detect falls in PD, mainly during a postural challenging task.
Byron Lai, Katie Cederberg, Kerri A. Vanderbom, C. Scott Bickel, James H. Rimmer and Robert W. Motl
This review examined demographic and clinical characteristics of participants from exercise trials in 3 neurologic disability conditions (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury) and compared these data with population-based statistics. The authors included 75 published studies from 2006 to 2016: 53 studies for multiple sclerosis (n = 2,034), 14 for spinal cord injury (n = 302), and 8 for traumatic brain injury (n = 272). Pooled data resembled some heterogeneous aspects of population data sets. However, many characteristics were not reported; samples were small and predominantly White, and 48.1% of the people screened were excluded. Thus, findings from these studies may not be translatable across the range of people with these three conditions, which warrant efforts to target the inclusion of underrepresented subgroups in future exercise trials.
Elisa S. Arch, Sarah Colón and James G. Richards
Breast and bra motion research aims to understand how the breasts/bra move to aid development of apparel that minimizes motion. Most previously published research has tracked nipple motion to represent bra motion. However, this method does not provide information regarding regional tissue motion. A more comprehensive approach might facilitate understanding how the entire soft-tissue mass moves during physical activities. This study developed and tested an objective method to comprehensively measure 3-dimensional bra motion, including regional displacement and velocity, displacement phasing, and surface stretch. To test the method, 6 females were fitted with a minimally supportive, seamless bra (small bra n = 3; large bra n = 3). Data were collected as participants ran on a treadmill. Results indicated marker displacement, velocity, link stretch, and link stretch velocities reached as high as 52.6 (6.8) mm, 504.8 (88.7) mm/s, 29.5% (7.1%) of minimum length, and 3.8 (1.0) mm/s/mm, respectively, with the large bra having greater motions compared with the small. Most bra motion occurred above/below the nipple region and at the bra’s strap–body interface, independent of bra size. Importantly, maximum marker displacement and velocity did not occur at the nipple. Measurements obtained from this new method may be important for designing innovative clothing that minimizes bra motion during physical activity.
Jason Lake, Peter Mundy, Paul Comfort, John J. McMahon, Timothy J. Suchomel and Patrick Carden
This study examined concurrent validity of countermovement vertical jump reactive strength index modified and force–time characteristics recorded using a 1-dimensional portable and laboratory force plate system. Twenty-eight men performed bilateral countermovement vertical jumps on 2 portable force plates placed on top of 2 in-ground force plates, both recording vertical ground reaction force at 1000 Hz. Time to takeoff; jump height; reactive strength index modified; and braking and propulsion impulse, mean net force, and duration were calculated from the vertical force from both force plate systems. Results from both systems were highly correlated (r ≥ .99). There were small (d < 0.12) but significant differences between their respective braking impulse, braking mean net force, propulsion impulse, and propulsion mean net force (P < .001). However, limits of agreement yielded a mean value of 1.7% relative to the laboratory force plate system (95% confidence limits, 0.9%–2.5%), indicating very good agreement across all of the dependent variables. The largest limits of agreement were for jump height (2.1%), time to takeoff (3.4%), and reactive strength index modified (3.8%). The portable force plate system provides a valid method of obtaining reactive strength measures, and several underpinning force–time variables, from unloaded countermovement vertical jump. Thus, practitioners can use both force plates interchangeably.