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Mohammad Sahebkar, Hamid Heidarian Miri, Pardis Noormohammadpour, Amir Tiyuri, Reza Pakzad, Nasrin Mansournia, Zahra Heidari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia and Emmanuel Stamatakis

Background: To investigate the geographical distribution of physical activity (PA) prevalence among adults aged 15–64 years old across Iran provinces using geographic maps. Methods: Data from 4 consecutive national surveys conducted between 2007 and 2010 were pooled to determine the geographical distribution. Prevalence of low PA with 95% confidence interval was estimated by sociodemographic subpopulations over provinces using complex survey design. Results: In total, 119,560 participants (49.9% females) were included in the analyses. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.5 (14.3) years. The prevalence of the low PA in the pooled 2007–2010 was 35.8% (95% confidence interval, 34.1–37.6). The 3 provinces with the highest prevalence of low PA were Sistan and Baluchestan, Yazd, and Hormozgan. The results of hot spot analysis showed that the Kerman province was a hot spot, and Ilam, Kermanshah, Hamedan, and Markazi were cold spots for low PA. Ilam, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, and Mazandaran had the highest total PA volume (metabolic equivalent minutes per week). Hot spot analysis showed that Ilam and Khuzestan provinces were hot spots for the total PA volume. Conclusions: The regions with low and high PA are predominately situated in the near center/southeast and west, respectively.

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Ross D. Neville, Fergal Lyons, Brendan Doyle and Kimberley D. Lakes

This study compared fundamental movement skills (FMS) in children from schools on the lower and upper levels of socioeconomic status. Data were collected from 228 schoolchildren across five schools in Ireland. There were 147 children from schools of social disadvantage (Mage = 7.67 [SD = 0.62] years; 55% boys) and 81 children from schools considered in the normal range for socioeconomic development (Mage = 7.34 [SD = 0.26] years; 56% boys). FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development–2. Mixed models were used to estimate differences in FMS, while controlling for the nested structure of the data and for sex, age, body mass index, and class size. There was a substantial sex×school interaction, with girls from schools of social disadvantage exhibiting greater object-control skills proficiency than their counterparts in schools on the upper tertiles of socioeconomic development (standardized effect size = 0.66 [±95% confidence limits, ±0.50]; p = .02). The suggestion that children from social disadvantage are delayed in FMS is unsupported in this cohort. Differences in the structure of physical education and types of sports undertaken by children in schools of social disadvantage in Ireland are considered as explanations for this departure from previous studies.

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Graig M. Chow, Matthew D. Bird, Stinne Soendergaard and Yanyun Yang

This manuscript seeks to offer insight about how coaches can better address drinking among collegiate student-athletes. Using a mixed-methods design, 519 NCAA coaches reported their attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking, and responded to open-ended questions about their perceived role, strategies, and challenges to addressing problems in this population. Three dimensions of coaches’ attitudes and behaviors toward student-athlete drinking emerged that were consistent regardless of the players’ or coach’s gender or division: Concerned Communication, Conditional Leniency, and Enforcement. Effective strategies identified by coaches included enforcement of policy, education about consequences of drinking, establishment of quality coach-athlete relationships, and management of athletes’ schedules. Coaches indicated the need to play a role in managing, educating, influencing, and supporting the student-athletes to prevent alcohol misuse. Coaches reported challenges regarding the culture of drinking on college campuses, individual differences (e.g., age) among student-athletes, acceptance and enforcement of the alcohol policy, lack of awareness about student-athletes’ activities, and identification of alcohol misuse.

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Andrew Hammond, Ruth Jeanes, Dawn Penney and Deana Leahy

In this study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Victorian swimming coaches to examine the discourses of disability1 and inclusion that they expressed in relation to their current coaching practices. Analysis specifically pursued links between neoliberalism, ableism, elitism, classification and inclusion in coaching, with the intention of exploring what discourse relations are possible, imaginable and practical within what have been referred to as neoliberal-ableist times. Findings reveal that coaches replicate and reproduce elitist, ableist assumptions about the body and sport. The discussion prompts a consideration of how rationalities and techniques of inclusion are limited under the prevailing political context.

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Barbara Resnick, Elizabeth Galik, Marie Boltz, Erin Vigne, Sarah Holmes, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity and function of older adults in assisted living communities and test the association between moderate and vigorous activity and falls. This study used baseline data from 393 participants from the first two cohorts in the Function-Focused Care in Assisted Living Using the Evidence Integration Triangle study. The majority of participants were female (N = 276, 70%) and White (N = 383, 97%) with a mean age of 87 years (SD = 7). Controlling for age, cognition, gender, setting, and function, the time spent in moderate or vigorous levels of physical activity was associated with having a fall in the prior 4 months. Those who engaged in more moderate physical activity were 0.6% less likely to have a fall (OR = 0.994, Wald statistic = 5.54, p = .02), and those who engaged in more vigorous activity were 2% less likely to have a fall (OR = 0.980, Wald statistic = 3.88, p = .05).

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Marianne Jover, Mathilde Cellier and Celine Scola

Infants interact with their caregivers, using visual contact, smiling, vocalizations, and motor activity. Most of the studies on infant motor activity during dyadic interaction provided qualitative microanalyses. Few documented changes in infants’ general motor activity when facing social stimuli, but the movement analyses were carried out over large time windows. Following on from a previous study, we sought to explore rapid variations in motor activity during an interaction between mothers and their 6-month-old infants. The interaction featured short alternating silent and singing phases. Results showed that infants’ head, hand, and foot motor activity was related to their mothers’ behavior. Head movements, in particular, decreased during the songs and increased between them. The interindividual variability was strong at the hand and foot level and a k-mean cluster analysis showed three different group tendencies. Head stillness certainly expressed the infants’ attentional engagement in the interaction. Hand and foot movements appeared to be more variable and, at the foot level, presumably depended on the mother–infant communicative routines. Infants’ general motor activity could be an indicator of the infant’s engagement and reflect the dyad’s communicative routines during interactions.

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Nele Huys, Vicky Van Stappen, Samyah Shadid, Marieke De Craemer, Odysseas Androutsos, Jaana Lindström, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Maria S. de Sabata, Luis Moreno, Pilar De Miguel-Etayo, Violeta Iotova, Imre Rurik, Yannis Manios, Greet Cardon and on behalf of the Feel4Diabetes-Study Group

Background: This study aimed to investigate whether the relationship between psychosocial and perceived environmental factors and physical activity (PA) in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes is influenced by educational level. Methods: Based on the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score questionnaire, this study selected 164 adults (M age: 38 (5.34) y, 13.4% men) at type 2 diabetes risk from 11 low socioeconomic neighborhoods in Flanders (Belgium). Participants filled out questionnaires on psychosocial and perceived environmental factors and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for 5 consecutive days. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of covariance in SPSS. Results: Educational level significantly influenced the association between perception of body weight and light PA (P = .01) and total PA (P = .03) on weekend days. Educational level did not influence the associations between other psychosocial and perceived environmental factors (ie, perceived social influence; environmental, time and attitudinal barriers, perceived self-efficacy; knowledge and fatalism) and PA. Conclusions: Educational level did not influence the relationship between most psychosocial and perceived environmental factors and PA in this sample of adults at type 2 diabetes risk. This suggests that addressing different psychosocial and perceived environmental correlates in lower and higher educated participants might not be necessary. However, more research in this specific population is needed.

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Jennifer A. Hogg, Randy J. Schmitz and Sandra J. Shultz

Clinical femoral anteversion (Craig test) and hip range of motion (ROM) have been associated with valgus collapse, but their clinical usefulness in predicting biomechanics is unknown. Our purpose was to determine the individual and combined predictive power of femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM on 3-dimensional valgus collapse (hip internal rotation and adduction, knee rotation, and abduction) during a single-leg forward landing in females. Femoral anteversion and passive hip ROM were measured on 20 females (24.9 [4.1] y, 168.7 [8.0] cm, 63.8 [11.6] kg). Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were collected over 5 trials of the task. Each variable was averaged across trials. Backward, stepwise regressions determined the extent to which our independent variables were associated with valgus collapse. The combination of greater hip internal and external rotation ROM (partial r = .52 and .56) predicted greater peak knee internal rotation moment (R 2 = .38, P = .02). Less hip internal rotation ROM (partial r = −.44) predicted greater peak knee abduction moments (R 2 = .20, P = .05). Greater total hip ROM (internal and external rotation ROM) was not consistently associated with combined motions of valgus collapse but was indicative of isolated knee moments. Passive hip ROM is more associated with knee moments than is femoral anteversion as measured with Craig test.

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Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton

The Kids Active program was developed with the aim of increasing physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skill (FMS) levels of children in preschool services in Ireland through training educators to encourage active play opportunities. In this study, the impact of a six-week pilot program on educator confidence, as well as children’s PA levels and FMS proficiency, is evaluated. Educators’ (n = 32) confidence to teach PA was measured through questionnaire, while data (anthropometric data, PA via accelerometry, and proficiency in four FMS; run, vertical jump, overhand throw, and catch) were collected from 141 children in five intervention and four control services. Educators in the intervention group achieved significantly higher confidence scores at post-intervention testing in comparison to the control group. No significant differences between control and intervention groups were found for children’s PA across the three-hour period. Children in the intervention group significantly increased scores in the overhand throw. Small positive changes in educator confidence to teach PA and in children’s performance of the skill of overhand throw indicate potential effects of the Kids Active intervention that warrant further investigation of efficacy over longer periods of time.

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Adam J. White, Stefan Robinson, Eric Anderson, Rachael Bullingham, Allyson Pollock and Ryan Scoats

Diversity and representation in sport governing bodies has become an issue for both public discussion and academic debate in recent times. Previous work has primarily centered on gender inequalities within the forever changing masculine terrain of sport. However, no work has yet examined the representation and participation of young people in the decision-making structures of sporting bodies. This paper holds up England’s Rugby Union for organizational analysis, using the notion of homologous reproduction as a heuristic framework. In doing so, it explores the reproduction of this governing body for the systematic exclusion of young people in decision-making processes over the last few decades. This framework is then twined with Article 11 of the United Nation’s Convention for the Rights of the Child, to make the case that the RFU desires homologous reproduction in order to avoid dealing with what youth are currently concerned with –head injuries. Given such a high proportion of rugby’s participants being under twenty-five years of age, we conclude the lack of young people within the decision-making process represents a form of willful discrimination.