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Zeynep Hazar Kanik, Seyit Citaker, Canan Yilmaz Demirtas, Neslihan Celik Bukan, Bulent Celik and Gurkan Gunaydin

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Kinesio taping (KT) on delayed onset muscle soreness. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants: Fifty-four nonathletic volunteers were assigned randomly to KT (n = 27) and placebo KT (n = 27) groups. Interventions: The intense exercise protocol consisted of 100 consecutive drop jumps from a 0.60-m-high platform. Kinesio tape was applied with the fan technique on the quadriceps muscles in the KT group. The placebo KT group received the Kinesio tape with no technique and tension. Main Outcome Measure: Muscle soreness, maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength, vertical jump height, and blood analyses (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin, and C-reactive protein) were measured preexercise, immediately postexercise, 48 hours postexercise, and 72 hours postexercise. Results: There was a significant effect of time in all outcome measures (P < .05) except serum C-reactive protein level (P > .05). The intensity of muscle soreness was significantly lower in the KT group relative to the placebo KT group at 72 hours postexercise (P = .01). The serum creatine kinase level was significantly higher in the KT group compared with the placebo KT group at 72 hours postexercise (P = .01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the other outcome measures (P > .05). Conclusions: These findings indicate that KT intervention following the intense exercise protocol reduced muscle soreness. However, it had no effect on maximal quadriceps isometric strength and vertical jump height or serum lactate dehydrogenase, myoglobin, and C-reactive protein levels. Furthermore, KT application after intense exercise also increased serum creatine kinase levels.

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E. Messiah and Sara M. St. George

Background: Previous literature has shown a negative relationship between parental stress and youth moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study examined (1) the relationship between parental stress and adolescent MVPA, (2) the moderating role of family communication on this relationship, and (3) gender differences in these effects among overweight and obese Hispanic adolescents. Methods: Hispanic adolescents (N = 280, 52% female, 13.0 [0.8] y old, 44% obese, 12% severely obese) and their parents (88% female, 44.9 [6.5] y old) completed baseline measures for an efficacy trial. Adolescents self-reported MVPA in minutes per week for work, transportation, and recreation using a validated measure. Multiple regression analyses with interaction terms and multigroup methods were conducted. Results: There was a negative effect of parental stress on adolescent MVPA (β = −0.15, t = −2.018, P ≤ .05). This effect was moderated by family communication (β = 0.20, t = 2.471, P = .01), such that the association between parental stress and youth MVPA was stronger for adolescents with low levels of family communication. Furthermore, a multiple group model showed that the interaction was significant for boys (β = 0.27, t = 2.185, P = .03), but not for girls. Conclusions: Findings provide support that addressing parental stress and family communication may help facilitate MVPA among Hispanic boys, the most at-risk group for pediatric obesity.

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Anna M. Ifarraguerri, Danielle M. Torp, Abbey C. Thomas and Luke Donovan

Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have been shown to have increased lateral plantar pressure during walking which is thought to contribute to symptoms associated with CAI. The objective of this study was to determine whether real-time video feedback can reduce lateral plantar pressure in individuals with CAI. Twenty-six participants with CAI completed 30 s of treadmill walking while plantar pressure was measured using an in-shoe plantar pressure system (baseline). Next, participants completed an additional 30 s of treadmill walking while receiving video feedback (VID FB). During the VID FB condition, participants had a significant decrease in medial forefoot peak pressure and medial midfoot pressure-time integral; however, both changes were associated with small effect sizes. Real-time video feedback did not reduce lateral plantar pressure in individuals with CAI; therefore, other gait retraining strategies should be considered when treating patients with CAI.

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of strength training on Olympic time-based sports (OTBS) time-trial performance and provide an estimate of the impact of type of strength training, age, training status, and training duration on OTBS time-trial performance. Methods: A search on 3 electronic databases was conducted. The analysis comprised 32 effects in 28 studies. Posttest time-trial performance of intervention and control group from each study was used to estimate the standardized magnitude of impact of strength training on OTBS time-trial performance. Results: Strength training had a moderate positive effect on OTBS time-trial performance (effect size = 0.59, P < .01). Subgroup meta-analysis showed that heavy weight training (effect size = 0.30, P = .01) produced a significant effect, whereas other modes did not induce significant effects. Training status as factorial covariate was significant for well-trained athletes (effect size = 0.62, P = .04), but not for other training levels. Meta-regression analysis yielded nonsignificant relationship with age of the participants recruited (β = −0.04; 95% confidence interval, −0.08 to 0.004; P = .07) and training duration (β = −0.05; 95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 0.02; P = .15) as continuous covariates. Conclusion: Heavy weight training is an effective method for improving OTBS time-trial performance. Strength training has greatest impact on well-trained athletes regardless of age and training duration.

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Carlos Marta, Ana R. Alves, Pedro T. Esteves, Natalina Casanova, Daniel Marinho, Henrique P. Neiva, Roberto Aguado-Jimenez, Alicia M. Alonso-Martínez, Mikel Izquierdo and Mário C. Marques

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week program of resistance training (RT) or suspension training (ST) on explosive strength in prepubescent boys. Methods: Fifty-seven boys aged 10–11 years were assigned to 2 training groups, RT or ST or a control group (no training program). Boys trained twice weekly for 8 weeks. Results: A significant interaction was reported with a large (P < .001, ηp2=.463), medium (P < .001, ηp2=.395), and small effect sized (P ≤ .001, ηp2=.218) in the 1-kg ball throw, 3-kg ball throw, and time-at-20-m test, respectively. There was no significant interaction in the countermovement vertical jump or the standing long jump. Changes from preintervention to postintervention for the 1-kg ball throw were 5.94% and 5.82% for the ST and RT, respectively, and 8.82% and 8.14% in the 3-kg ball throw for the ST and RT, respectively. The improvement in the 20-m sprint was 1.19% for the ST and 2.33% for the RT. Conclusion: Traditional RT and ST seem to be effective methods for improving explosive strength in prepubescent boys. ST could be considered as an alternative modality to optimize explosive strength training in school-based programs.

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Charlie Bowen, Kristian Weaver, Nicola Relph and Matt Greig

Context: Training exposure has been associated with injury epidemiology in elite youth soccer, where lower-limb musculoskeletal screening is commonly used to highlight injury risk. However, there has been little consideration of the relationship between lower-limb screening and the loading response to soccer activities. Objective: To quantify the efficacy of using screening tests to predict the loading elicited in soccer-specific activities and to develop a hierarchical ordering of musculoskeletal screening tests to identify test redundancy and inform practice. Design: Correlational. Setting: Professional soccer club academy. Participants: A total of 21 elite male soccer players aged 15.7 (0.9) years. Intervention: Players completed a battery of 5 screening tests (knee to wall, hip internal rotation, adductor squeeze, single-leg hop, and anterior reach) and a 25-minute standardized soccer session with a Global Positioning System unit placed at C7 to collect multiplanar PlayerLoad data. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline data on each screening test, along with uniaxial PlayerLoad in the mediolateral, anteroposterior, and vertical planes. Results: Stepwise hierarchical modeling of the screening tests revealed that dominant leg knee-to-wall distance was the most prevalent and powerful predictor of multiplanar PlayerLoad, accounting for up to 42% of variation in uniaxial loading. The adductor squeeze test was the least powerful predictor of PlayerLoad. Of note, one player who incurred a knee injury within 3 weeks of testing had shown a 20% reduction in knee-to-wall distance compared with peers, and elicited 23% greater PlayerLoad, supporting the hierarchical model. Conclusions: There was some evidence of redundancy in the screening battery, with implications for clinical choice. Hierarchical ordering and a concurrent case study highlight dominant leg knee-to-wall distance as the primary predictor of multiaxial loading in soccer. This has implications for the design and interpretation of screening data in elite youth soccer.

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Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran

The purpose of this research was to explore the experience of transition and life after sport in a group of retired professional athletes. A total of 45 retired athletes from three national football leagues took part in semistructured interviews. Two overarching themes emerged from the data analysis: (a) preparing for transition and planning for retirement and (b) supportive environment. For athletes in this study, four main factors were identified as critical to promoting a positive transition. The nature of the transition also directly affected athletes’ experience of retirement from sport and, thus, their experience of flourishing in life after sport. The majority of participants in this study indicated that they lacked support from their sporting club and governing bodies both during their transition and in retirement. Planning for retirement and preparing for the future positively affected their ability to flourish in retirement. Recommendations for sport managers and athlete support services are provided.

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Alexander S.D. Gamble, Jessica L. Bigg, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Stephanie M. Boville, Greg S. Eskedjian, Sebastian Jannas-Vela, Jamie Whitfield, Matthew S. Palmer and Lawrence L. Spriet

Several previous studies have reported performance decrements in team sport athletes who dehydrated approximately 1.5–2% of their body mass (BM) through sweating. This study measured on-ice sweat loss, fluid intake, sodium balance, and carbohydrate (CHO) intake of 77 major junior (JR; 19 ± 1 years), 60 American Hockey League (AHL; 24 ± 4 years), and 77 National Hockey League (NHL; 27 ± 5 years) players. Sweat loss was calculated from pre- to post-exercise BM plus fluid intake minus urine loss. AHL (2.03 ± 0.62 L/hr) and NHL (2.02 ± 0.74 L/hr) players had higher sweat rates (p < .05) than JR players (1.63 ± 0.58 L/hr). AHL (1.23 ± 0.69%; p = .006) and NHL (1.29% ± 0.63%; p < .001) players had ∼30% greater BM losses than JR players (0.89% ± 0.57%). There was no difference in fluid intake between groups (p > .05). Sodium deficits (sodium loss − intake) were greater (p < .05) in AHL (1.68 ± 0.74 g/hr) and NHL (1.56 ± 0.84 g/hr) players compared with JR players (1.01 ± 0.50 g/hr). CHO intake was similar between groups (14–20 g CHO/hr), with 29%, 32%, and 40% of JR, AHL, and NHL players consuming no CHO, respectively. In summary, sweat rates were high in all players, but the majority of players (74/77, 54/60, and 68/77 of JR, AHL, and NHL, respectively) avoided mild dehydration (>2% BM) during 60 min of practice. However, ∼15%, 41%, and 48% of the JR, AHL, and NHL players, respectively, may have reached mild dehydration and increased risk of performance decrements in a 90-min practice.

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Philip E. Martin, Mary E. Rudisill, Bradley D. Hatfield, Jared Russell and T. Gilmour Reeve

One of the most important and yet more challenging and stressful tasks completed by a department chair is evaluating faculty. Regardless of its importance, though, department chairs often receive little or no training for this critical task. This paper contains three sections, all of which focus on faculty annual evaluations. The first section discusses a number of recommendations for conducting thorough and meaningful annual evaluations. The second section highlights a real case scenario at Auburn University in which all university departments were tasked with changing their evaluation procedures, criteria, and expectations for faculty performance to better align with the revised strategic goals and mission of the university. The third section highlights an innovative peer-based faculty performance-evaluation system employed in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland that is designed to engage all tenure-track faculty in the evaluation process.