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Federico Donghi, Ermanno Rampinini, Andrea Bosio, Maurizio Fanchini, Domenico Carlomagno and Nicola A. Maffiuletti

Purpose: To compare the effects of different modalities of morning priming exercise on afternoon physical performance with the associated hormonal and psychophysiological responses in young soccer players. Methods: In a randomized counterbalanced crossover design, 12 young soccer players completed 3 different morning conditions on 3 different days: repeated-sprint running (6 × 40 m), easy exercise (4 × 12 fast half squats, 6 speed ladder drills, and 20-m sprints), and control (no exercise). Blood testosterone and cortisol concentrations were assessed upon arrival (approximately 8:30AM) and approximately 5 hours and 30 minutes later. Body temperature, self-reported mood, quadriceps neuromuscular function (maximal voluntary contraction, voluntary activation, rate of torque development, and twitch contractile properties), jump, and sprint performance were evaluated twice per day, while rating of perceived exertion, motivation, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (IR2) tests were assessed once per day. Results: Compared with the control, repeated-sprint running induced a possible positive effect on testosterone (+11.6%) but a possible to very likely negative effect on twitch contractile properties (−13.0%), jump height (−1.4%), and Yo-Yo IR2 (−7.1%). On the other hand, easy exercise had an unclear effect on testosterone (−3.3%), resulted in lower self-reported fatigue (−31.0%) and cortisol (−12.9%), and had a possible positive effect on the rate of torque development (+4.3%) and Yo-Yo IR2 (+6.5%) compared with the control. Conclusions: Players’ testosterone levels were positively influenced by repeated-sprint running, but this did not translate into better physical function, as both muscular and endurance performance were reduced. Easy exercise seemed to be suitable to optimize the physical performance and psychophysiological state of young soccer players.

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Flavio A. Cadegiani, Pedro Henrique L. Silva, Tatiana C.P. Abrao and Claudio E. Kater

Purposes: Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is an unexplained underperformance syndrome triggered by excessive training, insufficient caloric intake, inadequate sleep, and excessive cognitive and social demands. Investigation of the recovery process from OTS has not been reported to date. The objective was to unveil novel markers and biochemical and clinical behaviors during the restoration process of OTS. Methods: This was a 12-week interventional protocol in 12 athletes affected by OTS, including increase of caloric intake, transitory interruption of training, improvement of sleep quality, and management of stress, followed by the assessment of 50 parameters including basal and hormonal responses to an insulin tolerance test and nonhormonal biochemical markers, and body metabolism and composition. Results: Early cortisol (P = .023), late ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) (P = .024), and early and late growth hormone (P = .005 and P = .038, respectively) responses, basal testosterone (P = .038), testosterone:estradiol ratio (P = .0005), insulinlike growth factor 1 (P = .004), cortisol awakening response (P = .001), and free thyronine (P = .069) increased, while basal estradiol (P = .033), nocturnal urinary catecholamines (P = .038), and creatine kinase (P = .071) reduced. Conversely, markers of body metabolism and composition had slight nonsignificant improvements. Conclusion: After a 12-week intervention, athletes affected by actual OTS disclosed a mix of non-, partial, and full recovery processes, demonstrating that remission of OTS is as complex as its occurrence.

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Jaime Gil-Cabrera, Pedro L. Valenzuela, Lidia B. Alejo, Eduardo Talavera, Almudena Montalvo-Pérez, Alejandro Lucia and David Barranco-Gil

Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of optimum power load training (OPT, training with an individualized load and repetitions that maximize power output) and traditional resistance training (TRT, same number of repetitions and relative load for all individuals) in professional cyclists. Methods: Participants (19 [1] y, peak oxygen uptake 75.5 [6] mL/kg/min) were randomly assigned to 8 weeks (2 sessions per week) of TRT (n = 11) or OPT (n = 9), during which they maintained their usual cycle training schedule. Training loads were continuously registered, and measures of muscle strength/power (1-repetition maximum and maximum mean propulsive power on the squat, hip thrust, and lunge exercises), body composition (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and endurance performance (assessed on both an incremental test and an 8-min time trial) were collected before and at the end of the intervention. Results: OPT resulted in a lower average intensity (percentage of 1-repetition maximum) during resistance training sessions for all exercises (P < .01), but no differences were found for overall training loads during resistance or cycling sessions (P > .05). Both programs led to significant improvements in all strength/power-related parameters, muscle mass (with no changes in total body mass but a decreased fat mass), and time-trial performance (all Ps < .05). A trend toward increased power output at the respiratory compensation point was also found (P = .056 and .066 for TRT and OPT, respectively). No between-groups differences were noted for any outcome (P > .05). Conclusion: The addition of either TRT or OPT to an endurance training regimen of elite cyclists results in similar improvements of body composition, muscle strength/power, and endurance performance.

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Kurt Jensen, Morten Frydkjær, Niels M.B. Jensen, Lucas M. Bannerholt and Søren Gam

Purpose: To examine the relationship between the maximal power output (MPO) in an individualized 7 × 2-minute incremental (INCR) test, average power in a 2k (W2k) rowing ergometer test, and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and to develop a regression equation to predict V˙O2max. Methods: A total of 34 male club rowers (age 18–30 y) performed a 2k and an INCR test in a Concept2 rowing ergometer to determine and compare MPO, W2k, and V˙O2max. Results: No significant difference was found between V˙O2max measured during INCR or 2k test (P = .73). A very high correlation coefficient (r = .96) was found between MPO and V˙O2max and between W2k and V˙O2max (r = .93). Linear regression analyses were developed for predicting V˙O2max from MPO: (1) V˙O2max (mL·min−1) = 11.49 × MPO + 810 and V˙O2max from W2k: (2) V˙O2max = 10.96 × W2k + 1168. Cross-validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 14 rowers. There was no difference between the mean predicted V˙O2max in the INCR test (4.41 L·min−1) or the 2k test (4.39 L·min−1) and the observed V˙O2max (4.40 L·min−1). Technical error of measurement was 3.1% and 3.6%, standard error of estimate was 0.136 and 0.157 mL·min−1, and validation coefficients (r) were .95 and .94 using Equation () and (), respectively. Conclusion: A prediction model only including MPO or W2k explains 88% to 90% of the variability in V˙O2max and is suggested for practical use in male club rowers.

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James Brighton, Robert C. Townsend, Natalie Campbell and Toni L. Williams

In this paper we explore current theoretical approaches available from the discipline of critical disability studies (CDS) for conceptualizing physical disability and advocate how these understandings can advance sociological research on disability sport. After reviewing a dominant “models” approach that has historically been employed, we illuminate how theoretical architecture provided by selected sociological theorists (Pierre Bourdieu, Michel Foucault, and Zygmunt Bauman) and from aesthetic, cyborg, and new materialist approaches can help reveal the materialist conditions, sociocultural structures, and lived realities of disability. In doing so, we appeal to researchers of disability sport to develop critical understandings of why alternative theoretical approaches are valuable, what theoretical choices to make, and how we can use theory to highlight oppression and empower those involved in disability sport.

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Mikayla J. Lyons, Jennifer Conlon, Amy Perejmibida, Paola Chivers and Christopher Joyce

Purpose: This study examined the maintenance of passing performance following soccer-specific high-intensity intermittent exercise in elite (n = 9) and subelite (n = 11) Western Australian female soccer players (19.5 [2.5] y). Methods: A total of 20 participants completed the Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT) prior to, during, and following 90 minutes of a modified, female-specific, individualized exercise protocol (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test [LIST]) to simulate 2 halves of a soccer match. Performance in the LSPT was calculated by adding “raw time” to the accumulated “penalty time” for each test. Results: Elite players recorded greater distances (t 58 = 4.671, P < .001, effect size [ES] = 1.21) and higher derived VO2max values (t 58 = 4.715, P < .001, ES = 1.20) for the LIST exercise protocol over the subelite players. The total performance times for each LSPT were longer in the subelites in comparison with the elites, with a very large ES difference seen in post-LIST1 (t 18 = −6.64, P < .001, ES = 2.99) and post-LIST2 (t 18 = −9.143, P < .001, ES = 4.12). No between-groups differences were identified for “raw time” at any time point. Hence, all reported LSPT performance differences are attributed to “penalty time.” Conclusion: These data suggest that elite players can sustain their passing performance more efficiently throughout match play that can subelite female soccer players. These findings may contribute to future talent-identification testing by helping to distinguish between elite- and subelite-level players through sustained passing performance. Coaches may also use this information to better inform best-practice training methods through modification of male soccer-specific high-intensity intermittent exercise to a female cohort.

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman and Samuel R. Nyman

The objective of this study was to understand the experiences of people living with dementia and their informal carers’ taking part together (in dyads) in Tai Chi classes and the aspects influencing their adherence. Dyads’ experiences of taking part in Tai Chi classes for 20 weeks within the TACIT Trial were explored through class observations (n = 22 dyads), home-interviews (n = 15 dyads), and feedback. Data were inductively coded following thematic analysis. Tai Chi classes designed for people with dementia and their informal carers were enjoyable and its movements, easy to learn. Facilitators of participants' adherence were the socializing component and their enjoyment of the classes, whereas unexpected health problems were the main barrier. Finding the optimal level of challenge in the class setting might be crucial for people with dementia to feel satisfied with their progression over sessions and enable their continued participation.

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Scott W.T. McNamara, Matthew Shaw, Kylie Wilson and Angela Cox

Educational podcasts are developed specifically for learning purposes. Preliminary research suggests that many college courses and practitioners regularly use educational podcasts and that this medium is a beneficial tool to use to supplement the learning process. However, there is limited scholarly work examining the use of educational podcasts within kinesiology fields. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a scoping review of the literature on the use of educational podcasts in the field of kinesiology. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews extension for Scoping Reviews Checklist guided this investigation. Six databases were searched. Fourteen articles met the full inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were data-driven research articles, and three were practitioner articles. Much of the research identified lacked critical information related to research design, instrument development, and findings. Thus, the authors recommend that more rigorous research in this area be conducted to discern the impact of educational podcasts within the field of kinesiology.

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Karen E. Hancock, Paul Downward and Lauren B. Sherar

Momentary feelings of pleasure and purpose can be sources of intrinsic motivation, but momentary purpose is rarely studied. Activities, contexts, and feelings of retired/semiretired adults (n = 67, aged 50–78 years) were captured using ecological momentary assessment. Participants provided 2,065 valid responses to six daily smartphone surveys for 7 days. Physical activity was measured by waist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer. Pleasure (measured by affective happiness) and purpose outcomes were regressed on activities, context, and potential confounding variables. Interactions between activities and contexts were explored. Participants were highly active: 98.5% met physical activity guidelines. Sedentary activities were negatively associated with sense of purpose, especially when indoors. However, social sedentary activities were positively associated with feelings of happiness. Active, social outdoor activities were positively associated with both outcomes. Less sedentary participants experienced greater happiness and purpose during all their activities. Context matters: active, social, and outdoor activities seem to be more appealing to older adults.

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Catherine Carty, Hidde P. van der Ploeg, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Fiona Bull, Juana Willumsen, Lindsay Lee, Kaloyan Kamenov and Karen Milton

Background: The World Health Organization has released the first global public health guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior for people living with disability. This paper presents the guidelines, related processes, and evidence, and elaborates upon how the guidelines can support inclusive policy, practice, and research. Methods: Methods were consistent with the World Health Organization protocols for developing guidelines. Systematic reviews of the evidence on physical activity for health for people living with disability were appraised, along with a consideration of the evidence used to inform the general 2020 World Health Organization guidelines. Results: Evidence supported the development of recommendations for people living with disability, stressing that there are no major risks to engaging in physical activity appropriate to an individual’s current activity level, health status, and physical function, and that the health benefits accrued generally outweigh the risks. They also emphasize the benefits of limiting sedentary behavior. Conclusions: The guidelines mark a positive step forward for disability inclusion, but considerable effort is needed to advance the agenda. This paper highlights key considerations for the implementation of the new recommendations for people living with disability, in line with the human rights agenda underpinning the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 and allied policies.