This brief research note examined the reliability of scores from an accelerometer as measures of sedentary and physical activity behaviors in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The analysis was performed on a combined data set from 2 previous longitudinal investigations of physical activity in MS. We focused on the number of days required to reliably estimate sedentary behavior, based on time spent in sedentary behavior per day and number of sedentary breaks, number of long sedentary bouts, and average length of sedentary bouts per day. We further examined the number of days required to reliably estimate physical activity behavior, based on time spent in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average length of activity bouts per day. Between 4–6 days of monitoring and 3–7 days of monitoring were necessary for good reliability of scores from all sedentary outcomes and physical activity outcomes, respectively. These results should guide research and practice examining sedentary and physical activity behaviors using accelerometry in persons with MS.
Rachel E. Klaren, Elizabeth A. Hubbard, Weimo Zhu and Robert W. Motl
Jennifer Leo and Donna Goodwin
The purpose of this interpretative phenomenological analysis study was to explore the meaning persons who experience disability ascribed to disability simulations as a pedagogical tool. Reflective writing, one-on-one interviews, and field notes were used to gather information on disability simulation use in a required postsecondary kinesiology course. Seven people who use wheelchairs full time (3 men, 4 women), ranging in age from 28 to 44 yr (average age = 36) shared their perspectives. The thematic analysis revealed 3 themes. The theme “Disability Mentors Required” revealed the participants’ collective questioning of their absence from the design and implementation of disability simulations. “Life Is Not a Simulation” illustrated the juxtaposition of disability reality and disability simulations. “Why Are They Laughing?” contrasted the use of fun as a strategy to engage students against the risk of distracting them from deeper reflection. Through the lens of ableism, the importance of disability representation in the development and implementation of disability simulations was affirmed as a means to deepen pedagogical reflexiveness of their intended use.
Michael R. Esco, Brett S. Nickerson, Sara C. Bicard, Angela R. Russell and Phillip A. Bishop
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate measurements of body-fat percentage (BF%) in 4 body-mass-index- (BMI) -based equations and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Ten male and 10 female adults with DS volunteered for this study. Four regression equations for estimating BF% based on BMI previously developed by Deurenberg et al. (DEBMI-BF%), Gallagher et al. (GABMI-BF%), Womersley & Durnin (WOBMI-BF%), and Jackson et al. (JABMI-BF%) were compared with DXA. There was no significant difference (p = .659) in mean BF% values between JABMI-BF% (BF% = 40.80% ± 6.3%) and DXA (39.90% ± 11.1%), while DEBMI-BF% (34.40% ± 9.0%), WOBMI-BF% (35.10% ± 9.4%), and GABMI-BF% (35.10% ± 9.4%) were significantly (p < .001) lower. The limits of agreement (1.96 SD of the constant error) varied from 9.80% to 16.20%. Therefore, BMI-based BF% equations should not be used in individuals with DS.
Viviene A. Temple, P. Lynn Purves, Robyn Misovic, Coral J. Lewis and Carrie DeBoer
Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3–4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: “riders” and “not there yet.” Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children “not there yet.”
Farid Bardid, Floris Huyben, Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Kristine De Martelaer, Jan Seghers and Matthieu Lenoir
The aim of this study was to investigate the convergent and divergent validity between the Body Coordination Test for Children (KTK) and the Motor Proficiency Test for 4- to 6-Year-Old Children (MOT 4-6). A total of 638 children (5–6 yr old) took part in the study. The results showed a moderately positive association between the total scores of both tests (r s = .63). Moreover, the KTK total score correlated more highly with the MOT 4-6 gross motor score than with the MOT 4-6 fine motor score (r s = .62 vs. .32). Levels of agreement were moderate when identifying children with moderate or severe motor problems and low at best when detecting children with higher motor-competence levels. This study provides evidence of convergent and divergent validity between the KTK and MOT 4-6. However, given the moderate to low levels of agreement, either measurement may lead to possible categorization errors. Therefore, it is recommended that children’s motor competence not be judged based on the result of a single test.
Jill G. Zwicker
Peggy Hiu Nam Choi and Siu Yin Cheung
The study aimed to investigate the impact of an 8-wk structured physical activity program on selected psychosocial behaviors of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) and to estimate whether generalization occurred. Thirty children (22 boys, 8 girls) with mild ID took part in the study. The ANCOVA results showed a significant difference between the training group and the control group in emotional self-control mean scores, F(1, 25) = 7.61, p = .011, with the posttest mean score of the training group being better than that of the control group. The correlation analysis showed a medium, positive correlation between the gain scores of emotional self-control in the training context and classroom context of the training group (r = .41, n = 16, p = .12). Hence, generalization appeared to have occurred.
Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee and David L. Porretta
In the article by Haegele, J.A., Lee, L., and Porretta, D.L., “Research trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 2004 to 2013”, in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(3), 187–205, an incorrect DOI was printed. The correct DOI for that article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0232.
Emily Bremer and Meghann Lloyd
The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamentalmotor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom’s special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants’ individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher’s readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.