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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Ainara Jiménez-Alonso, Mar Cepero, Sergio Miras-Moreno, F. Javier Rojas and Amador García-Ramos

This study explored the impact of different frequencies of knowledge of results (KR) on velocity performance during ballistic training. Fifteen males completed four identical sessions (three sets of six repetitions at 30% one-repetition maximum during the countermovement jump and bench press throw) with the only difference of the KR condition provided: no feedback, velocity feedback after the first half of repetitions of each set (HalfKR), velocity feedback immediately after each repetition (ImKR), and feedback of the average velocity of each set (AvgKR). When compared with the control condition, the ImKR reported the highest velocity performance (1.9–5.3%), followed by the HalfKR (1.3–3.6%) and AvgKR (0.7–4.3%). These results support the verbal provision of velocity performance feedback after every repetition to induce acute improvements in velocity performance.

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Scott Rathwell, Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, Derrik Motz, Matt D. Hoffmann and Chelsea Currie

Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the validity of 48 items. In Study 2, 383 Masters coaches completed the survey of 50 items. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling indicated issues with model fit. Post hoc modifications improved fit, resulting in a 22-item, five-factor model. In Study 3, 467 Masters athletes responded to these 22 items reflecting perceptions of their coaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (comparative fit index = .951, standardized root mean square residual = .036, and root mean square error of approximation = .049) and exploratory structural equation modeling (comparative fit index = .977, standardized root mean square residual = .019, and root mean square error of approximation = .041) confirmed the model. The resultant Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey provides a reliable and factorially valid instrument for measuring adult-oriented coaching practices.

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Teresa Zwierko, Wojciech Jedziniak, Beata Florkiewicz, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Piotr Lesiakowski, Marta Śliwiak, Marta Kirkiewicz and Wojciech Lubiński

The aim of the study was to explore the functional impairments and related factors in older adults with moderate to advanced stages of glaucoma. Nineteen patients with glaucoma and 19 participants with no ocular disease performed step test and balance control tasks with analysis of overall stability index and fall risk index. Monocular and binocular Humphrey Visual Field tests were used to estimate visual field defect severity. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity level. Patients with glaucoma showed poorer values for most of the mobility and balance control parameters with medium and large effect sizes (0.3–0.5). Mobility scores in patients were partly associated with their monocular visual field defect (rs = .507, p < .05). Low physical activity was identified as a risk factor for falls (rs = −.453, p < .05) and postural instability (rs = −.457, p < .05). Functional declines in dynamic tasks were not related to glaucoma severity. Older adults with glaucoma display impairment with mobility and balance control compared to controls, associated with the degree of monocular visual field loss and lower daily physical activity.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Matthew Stork and Svenja Wolf

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Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie, Walter Yu, Warren A. Andrews, Robert F. Chipchase and Sophia Nimphius

Purpose: To investigate whether changes in delivery length (ie, short, good, and full) lead to alterations in whole-body biomechanical loading as determined by ground reaction force during front-foot contact of the delivery stride for pace bowlers. Current load-monitoring practices of pace bowling in cricket assume equivocal biomechanical loading as only the total number of deliveries are monitored irrespective of delivery length. Methods: A total of 16 male pace bowlers completed a 2-over spell at maximum intensity while targeting different delivery lengths (short, 7–10 m; good, 4–7 m; and full, 0–4 m from the batter’s stumps). In-ground force plates were used to determine discrete (vertical and braking force, impulse, and loading rates) and continuous front-foot contact ground reaction force. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05), effects size, and statistical parametrical mapping were used to determine differences between delivery lengths. Results: There were no significant differences between short, good, and full delivery lengths for the discrete and continuous kinetic variables investigated (P = .19–1.00), with trivial to small effect sizes. Conclusion: There were minimal differences in front-foot contact biomechanics for deliveries of different lengths (ie, short, good, and full). These data reinforce current pace bowling load-monitoring practices (ie, counting the number of deliveries), as changes in delivery length do not affect the whole-body biomechanical loading experienced by pace bowlers. This is of practical importance as it retains simplicity in load-monitoring practice that is used widely across different competition levels and ages.

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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Thaís Reichert, Vitória Bones and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: There are a lack of clinical trials with suitable methodological quality that compare aquatic exercise training types in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. This study aimed to compare the effects of aerobic and combined aquatic training on cardiorespiratory outcomes in patients with T2D. Methods: Untrained patients with T2D were randomized to receive an aerobic aquatic training, a combined aquatic training, or a procedure control in 3 weekly sessions for 15 weeks. The sessions were 50 minutes long. The intensities were from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold and at maximal velocity for aerobic and resistance parts, respectively. Resting heart rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and its relation with VO2peak were evaluated. Results: Participants were 59.0 (8.2) years old and 51% women. Intervention groups increased in VO2peak (aerobic aquatic training group: 4.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .004; combined aquatic training group: 5.27 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .006) and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold, whereas the control group presented an increase in oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and minimal change in VO2peak. Conclusions: Aerobic and combined aquatic exercise interventions improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of patients with T2D.

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Mark R. Noon, Emma L.J. Eyre, Matthew Ellis, Tony D. Myers, Rhys O. Morris, Peter D. Mundy, Ryan Penny and Neil D. Clarke

Purpose: To investigate the influence of recruitment age on retention and release across the development pathway and to explore the influence of anthropometric and physical characteristics on retention and release at different ages throughout the development pathway and the likelihood of obtaining a professional contract. Methods: Following receipt of ethics approval, a cross-sectional study tracking 4 cohorts of players over 5 years assessed 76 male youth football players (11–16 y) from an English football academy on 3 occasions annually in anthropometry, countermovement jump height, and linear (30 and 15 m) and multidirectional sprint time. Players were categorized based on their start and release date. Results: Starting early (ie, before U12) in an academy was a key indicator of obtaining a professional contract, representing 87% of the players signed. Bayesian regression models suggest that the majority of differences in physical characteristics between players that were released and retained are trivial, small, and/or uncertain. Players who attained a professional contract at 18 had slower 15- and 30-m sprint times at U13 to U15 (P > 0 = .87–.99), slower multidirectional sprint times at U14 (P > 0 = .99), and lower countermovement jump height at U13 to U16 (P > 0 = .88–.99) compared with players who did not gain a contract. Conclusion: Players recruited early have an increased likelihood of gaining a professional contract. Physical assessments lack utility when used in isolation as a talent-identification tool.

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Julia Limmeroth and Norbert Hagemann

Using an evaluative priming procedure, this study tested whether automatic evaluations of running differ among groups based on their amount of exercise and whether they were runners or not. Ninety-five participants (26 ± 5.06 years; 46% female) were divided into five groups: an inactive group, active exercisers, highly active exercisers, active runners, and highly active runners. A priming effect score was calculated based on the concept of response facilitation or inhibition: the reaction is faster when the target and prime are valence congruent and becomes slower if they are incongruent. The highly active runner group differed significantly from the inactive group (p < .01) and from the active exerciser group (p < .05). Furthermore, reflective evaluations were measured via questionnaires. The results show that priming effect scores can detect automatic evaluations of running, and they differ not only because of the amounts of physical exercise but also because of their preferred type of exercise.

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Jessica Gugusheff, Bridget C. Foley, Katherine B. Owen, Bradley Drayton, Ding Ding, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Charlotte Lund Rasmussen, Adrian E. Bauman and Margaret Thomas

Background: A combination of walking, other moderate physical activity, and vigorous physical activity is recommended for achieving good health. Vigorous activity has unique health benefits but may be less accessible to disadvantaged people. To reduce health inequity, we need to understand the differences in physical activity participation among socioeconomic subgroups and whether this is changing over time. Methods: Data from the 2002 to 2015 Adult New South Wales Population Health Surveys (164,652 responses) were analyzed to investigate trends in walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity participation by socioeconomic status as measured by educational attainment. Analysis used age- and sex-adjusted multivariable linear models that accounted for complex survey design. Results: In 2002, the highest socioeconomic group spent 18.5 (95% confidence interval, 8.2–28.8) minutes per week more than the lowest socioeconomic group being vigorously active. By 2015, this gap had steadily increased to 41.4 (95% confidence interval, 27.6–55.1) minutes per week. Inequity between groups was also found for duration of moderate activity but not for time spent walking. Conclusions: Low participation in vigorous activity in the lowest socioeconomic group is likely driving increasing inequities in physical activity and widening participation gaps over time. Barriers preventing the most disadvantaged people in New South Wales from engaging in vigorous activity should be addressed urgently.

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins and Vincent G. Kelly

Purpose: To examine potential differences in internal and external workload variables between playing positions and between training drills and games within an elite netball team during training and competition. Methods: Nine elite female netballers were monitored during 15 games and all training sessions over 28 weeks. Workload variables assessed were relative PlayerLoad (PL per minute), accelerations, decelerations, jumps, changes of direction, high-intensity events, medium-intensity events, low-intensity events, PL in a forward direction, PL in a sideways direction, PL in a vertical direction, and summated heart-rate zones using heart-rate monitors and inertial measurement units. Results: Conditioning and match play during training were the only drills that matched or exceeded game workloads. Workloads during small-sided games were lower than game workloads for all variables. In games, goalkeeper, goal attack, and goal shooter had a greater frequency of jumps compared with other positions. Midcourt positions had a greater frequency of low-intensity events in a game. Conclusions: Workloads during small-sided games were lower than game workloads across all external and internal variables; therefore, netball staff should modify these small-sided games if they wish them to develop game-based qualities. Specific game workload variables indicate that there are differences within some positional groups; coaches need to be aware that positional groupings may fail to account for differences in workload between individual playing positions.