Julia S. Glahn
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson
The researchers explore consumers’ emotional responses toward athlete brands by developing the associative evaluation–emotional appraisal–intention (AEI) model. The AEI postulates that unconscious (implicit attitudes) and conscious (explicit affective attitudes) levels of emotional responses systematically flow following assessments of perceived fit in athlete endorsements. Implicit attitudes were measured through the implicit association test, whereas pleasure, arousal, and pride captured explicit affective attitudes. Contrary to dominant beliefs about successful athlete endorsements, findings from a lab experiment indicate that low perceived fit affected implicit attitudes, which in turn affected arousal for consumers with high involvement. Pleasure, arousal, and pride were interrelated and systematically determined behavioral intentions of viewership and online friendship with athletes. Studies investigating athlete brands and endorsement success should consider the influence of both implicit and explicit attitudes on fan behavior. Managers should strategically utilize both low and high fit endorsements to facilitate emotional experiences and optimize desired consumption behavior.
Milena M. Parent, Michael L. Naraine and Russell Hoye
With the numerous changes to the sport system landscape since Slack and his colleagues examined national sport organizations’ governance in the 1990s, the purpose of this paper was to begin exploring the impact of these environmental changes on Canadian national sport organizations. To do so, we focused on five Canadian national sport organizations, from large Olympic sport organizations to small non-Olympic sport organizations. The two-pronged content and network analyses point to a convergence of governance structures and stakeholder interactions between the five organizations due in no small part to the new Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act. We found organizations coordinating with both traditional (e.g., athletes) and nontraditional (e.g., social media public) stakeholder groups as well as renewing their focus on accountability and transparency. These findings imply a need to revisit the kitchen table–boardroom–executive office archetype continuum and demonstrate the extent of influence environmental changes (e.g., technological advancement and new laws) can have on sport organizations.
Craig Hyatt, Shannon Kerwin, Larena Hoeber and Katherine Sveinson
While the sport fan literature suggests that it is common for parents to socialize their children to cheer for specific sports and teams, recent literature proposes that children can socialize their parents into changing the parents’ sport fandom in a process sociologists and consumer behavior researchers refer to as reverse socialization. To ascertain whether children can socialize and influence their parents’ sport fandom, 20 sport fan parents were interviewed. Evidence of reverse socialization was found in 15 of the participants, manifesting itself in ways that can be categorized as either developing new or additional fandom, or changing one’s behaviors or attitudes towards their existing fandom. However, further exploration of the data suggests that future research reexamine the term “reverse socialization,” as we do not see this as a directionality of influence, but as children as socializing agents.
Cole G. Armstrong, Theodore M. Butryn, Vernon L. Andrews and Matthew A. Masucci
In this critical essay, 4 sport scholars discuss critical teaching points gleaned while moderating 4 concurrent roundtable discussions on the intersections of sport, corporate social responsibility, and athlete activism. The roundtable groups comprised sport industry professionals from a variety of professional teams and leagues, as well as other corporate stakeholders located in the United States and in various international locations. The purpose of this essay is to distill the roundtable discussions for utilization in sport management classrooms through the explication of timely, practical, and operational key teaching points.
Meg G. Hancock, Lindsey Darvin and Nefertiti A. Walker
Sport management undergraduate and graduate programs have gained popularity throughout the United States and around the world. Despite this, women are still underrepresented in sport leadership positions. Although women have made it to the highest levels of sport leadership roles, studies suggest that advancement to such roles is more challenging for women than for men. Extant literature examines perceptions of women employed in the sport industry but fails to consider perceptions of prospective employees, specifically women, with career aspirations in sport business. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate sport management students’ perceptions of barriers to women’s success and upward mobility in the sport industry using the Career Pathways Survey. Results suggest that female sport management students perceive barriers to advancement in the sport industry, whereas male students do not perceive that barriers exist for women. Practical implications for the sport management classroom include developing male advocates, gender diversity and inclusion in guest presentations, and intentional internship placement.
Michael J. Diacin
The purpose of this work is to describe an experiential learning opportunity that sport management educators could integrate into one of their courses to enhance their students’ understanding of facility and risk management concepts. This project best fits into a course that focuses on facility and/or risk management. It consists of three components. First, students visit a sport-activity-focused facility and interview the facility manager. The interview focuses on policies and procedures related to facility, personnel, and risk management. Second, students complete an inspection of the facility to detect hazards that could compromise the safety of employees, user groups, and/or spectators. Third, they compose a critical assessment/reflection of what they learned. The benefit of providing this learning opportunity is that it allows students to witness the application (or lack thereof) of concepts and “best practices” learned in the course. Furthermore, it gives them an opportunity to start developing a “critical eye” that would be needed when assuming the role of managing a multipurpose facility.
Molly Hayes Sauder, Michael Mudrick and Jaime R. DeLuca
Male undergraduate sport management majors substantially outnumber females, suggesting that the path to a career in the sport industry is male dominated and gender stereotypes may exist. Simultaneously, there is a dearth of research on females’ experiences while enrolled in higher education and within sport management career development. Through qualitative focus groups conducted at two institutions with female sport management majors, this research sought to understand the barriers and sources of support that female students perceive while engaged in this academic discipline. The authors identified four themes—otherness, roles and credibility, prior experiences, and people of influence—all of which help illuminate the lived experience of gender bias among women in the sport management major and generate suggestions for the creation of more inclusive environments that foster persistence.
Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh
As society looks to identify globally minded citizens and leaders to move us forward, sport and education have a leading role to play. The sport industry is unique in how globally focused it is, and therefore, it is critical that sport management students be well prepared for this world. Study-abroad experiences for sport management students have the ability to aid in their development as world-minded individuals. The current study sampled students from four sport management programs participating in study-abroad programs over a 3-year time frame. The pre- and posttest results on a scale of global mindedness revealed no significant differences before and after studying abroad; however, there were significant differences between the five factors of global mindedness. Reasons for these potential findings, related to the theory of reasoned action, are discussed, as well as how this study can be built on in future iterations.
Sarah Stokowski, Bo Li, Benjamin D. Goss, Shelby Hutchens and Megan Turk
Informed by self-determination theory, this study builds on previous research to examine the work motivation and job satisfaction levels of sport management faculty members, as well as any relationship between their job satisfaction levels and work motivations. A total of 193 sport management faculty responded to a survey consisting of the Job Satisfaction Survey and the Motivation at Work Scale. Results revealed that regarding job satisfaction, faculty members were more satisfied with work itself, supervision, and coworkers and were less satisfied with pay, operating procedures, and reward. While participating sport management faculty had the highest mean in intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction also was significantly positively correlated with identified regulation. Male faculty showed significantly greater overall job satisfaction than female faculty, but gender did not affect work motivation factors. Finally, results revealed no significant differences among tenured, tenure-track, and non-tenure-track faculty in motivation levels, but after controlling for motivation, job satisfaction levels of non-tenure-track faculty were significantly less than those of tenured and tenure-track faculty. Results of this study can assist higher education administrators (i.e., department chairs, deans, provosts) to better understand that this population is highly intrinsically motivated and identifies deeply with their work. Administrators should work diligently to preserve autonomy, a factor that appears to lead to greater levels of motivation and job satisfaction.