Participation in physical activity has been shown to improve components of psychological well-being (i.e., affect). Programs such as the Warrior Games have been designed to promote physical activity in wounded military personnel. However, sport competition typically yields a winner and a loser (i.e., game outcome). The experience of a win or a loss may affect how wounded athletes respond to game outcome. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the affective changes (positive affect, negative affect, tranquility, and fatigue) according to game outcome in a sample of wounded military wheelchair basketball players participating in a weekend tournament. The results indicated that the participants who experienced a win reported significantly higher positive affect and tranquility and significantly lower negative affect than those experiencing a loss. These findings have important implications for wounded veteran athletes, as well as coaches and administrative personnel.
Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang
Mohsen Shafizadeh, Nicola Theis and Keith Davids
The aim of this study was to examine strategies to absorb impact shock during RaceRunning in participants with neurological motor disorders. For this purpose, 8 RaceRunning athletes (4 male and 4 female) voluntarily took part in the study. Each participant performed a series of 100-m sprints with a RaceRunning bike. Acceleration of the tibia and head was measured with 2 inertial measurement units and used to calculate foot-impact shock measures. Results showed that RaceRunning pattern was characterized by a lack of impact peak in foot–ground contact time and the existence of an active peak after foot contact. Due to the ergonomic properties of the RaceRunning bike, shock is attenuated throughout the stance phase. In conclusion, the results revealed that RaceRunning athletes with neurological motor disorders are capable of absorbing impact shock during assisted RaceRunning using a strategy that mimics runners without disabilities.
Jeffrey Martin, Mario Vassallo, Jacklyn Carrico and Ellen Armstrong
The purpose of this study was to predict Paralympian swimmers’ happiness as a result of winning 2016 Paralympic medals. Understanding potential antecedents of athletes’ happiness has theoretical and practical value. Medal winners (N = 138) had their facial expressions rated for happiness at the race finish. Three predictors were examined: finish place (i.e., first, second, or third), swimmers’ expectations for race place, and race time. A multiple-regression analysis predicting happiness was significant, F(3, 98) = 3.66, p < .015, accounting for 10% of the variance. Significant beta weights for race place (β = −0.551) and finishing higher than their 2015 world ranking (β = 0.551) indicated that higher-finishing swimmers were happier than lower-finishing swimmers, and swimmers who finished better than their 2015 ranking were happier than swimmers who finished lower than their ranking. The authors also found partial support for the counterfactual-thinking hypothesis for male swimmers and evidence of gender and country differences in happiness.
Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner and Sean Healy
The purpose of this study was to compare the degree to which children and adolescents with and without visual impairments (VIs) met national physical activity, screen-time, and sleep guidelines. This observational, cross-sectional analysis of the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health focused on children (age 6–12 yr) and adolescents (age 13–17 yr) with and without VIs. The sample included 241 (weighted n = 472,127) and 17,610 (weighted n = 28,249,833) children, and 255 (weighted n = 505,401) and 17,417 (weighted n = 20,071,557) adolescents with and without VIs, respectively. Chi-square statistics were computed to examine the degree to which participants with and without VIs met health-behavior guidelines. Children (p = .02) with VIs were less likely to meet screen-time guidelines, but adolescents with VIs were not (p = .87). VI status was not associated with the likelihood of meeting physical activity or sleep guidelines (p < .05). Low numbers of children and adolescents with and without VIs meeting health-behavior guidelines warrant targeted interventions aimed at enhancing engagement.
Mey A. van Munster, Laureen J. Lieberman and Michelle A. Grenier
The aim of this case study was to describe the distinct approaches used by physical education (PE) teachers to accommodate students with disabilities in New York elementary school PE classes. The participants included 1 adapted PE specialist, 5 PE teachers, and 5 elementary school students with various impairments. Through thematic analysis, observations and interviews revealed 3 main approaches: (a) normalized instruction—traditional curriculum with no differentiation in the program; (b) differentiated instruction—adaptations tailored specifically to the needs of each student with disability; and (c) universally designed instruction based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and accessibility to all students. Differentiated instruction, entailing modifications in the program and pedagogical accommodations, was the most prevalent approach at the research site, but lessons based on UDL principles were also observed. In association, the 2 approaches (differentiated instruction and UDL) represented significant resources to accommodate students with disabilities in PE.
Tobias Lundgren, Gustaf Reinebo, Markus Näslund and Thomas Parling
Despite the growing popularity of mindfulness and acceptance-based performance enhancement methods in applied sport psychology, evidence for their efficacy is scarce. The purpose of the current study is to test the feasibility and effect of a psychological training program based on Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) developed for ice hockey players. A controlled group feasibility designed study was conducted and included 21 elite male ice hockey players. The ACT program consisted of four, once a week, sessions with homework assignments between sessions. The results showed significant increase in psychological flexibility for the players in the training group. The outcome was positive for all feasibility measures. Participants found the psychological training program important to them as ice hockey players and helpful in their ice hockey development. Desirably, future studies should include objective performance data as outcome measure to foster more valid evidence for performance enhancement methods in applied sport psychology.
Timothy A. Hanke, Bruce Kay, Michael Turvey and David Tiberio
Lateral stability and weight transfer are important for successful stepping and are associated with falls in older adults (OAs). This study assessed the influence of step pacing frequency during medial–lateral stepping in place on body center of mass and lower limb movement in young adults, middle-aged adults, and OAs. Medial–lateral center of mass and stepping limb motion and lower limb loading data were collected. Center of mass motion decreased with increasing pacing frequency and increased to a lesser extent with decreasing pacing frequency. Step length was relatively resistant to changes in pacing frequency. OAs exhibited reductions in whole body and stepping motion compared with younger adults. OAs exhibited greater support limb loading. OAs adapt both postural and stepping strategies to successfully step under time-critical conditions.
Brice T. Cleland and Sheila Schindler-Ivens
Background: Prior work indicates that pedaling-related brain activation is lower in people with stroke than in controls. We asked whether this observation could be explained by between-group differences in volitional motor commands and pedaling performance. Methods: Individuals with and without stroke performed passive and volitional pedaling while brain activation was recorded with functional magnetic resonance imaging. The passive condition eliminated motor commands to pedal and minimized between-group differences in pedaling performance. Volume, intensity, and laterality of brain activation were compared across conditions and groups. Results: There were no significant effects of condition and no Group × Condition interactions for any measure of brain activation. Only 53% of subjects could minimize muscle activity for passive pedaling. Conclusions: Altered motor commands and pedaling performance are unlikely to account for reduced pedaling-related brain activation poststroke. Instead, this phenomenon may be due to functional or structural brain changes. Passive pedaling can be difficult to achieve and may require inhibition of excitatory descending drive.
Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto
This study compared performances of timed up and go test subtasks between 40 older people with preserved cognition, 40 with mild cognitive impairment, and 38 with mild Alzheimer’s disease. The assessment consisted of anamneses and timed up and go test subtasks (sit-to-stand, walking forward, turn, walking back, and turn-to-sit). Data were captured by Qualisys Track Manager software and processed by Visual3D software. The MATLAB program was applied to detect and analyze timed up and go test subtasks. All subtasks differentiated people with Alzheimer’s disease and preserved cognition, except the sit-to-stand subtask, which did not distinguish any group. The walking forward subtask differed older people with preserved cognition from mild cognitive impairment, specifically on minimum peak of knee, average value of knee, and hip (pitch axis) during stance phase. The walking back, turn, and turn-to-sit subtasks distinguished subjects with Alzheimer’s disease from mild cognitive impairment. The separated analysis of transition and walking subtasks is important in identifying mobility patterns among cognitive profiles.