Introduction: Overweight/obese children have postural control differences compared with normal-weight children. Nevertheless, there are not studies that analyze the effect of obesity during the entire period comprised between childhood and adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in postural control between normal-weight and overweight/obese participants during early and middle childhood and adolescence. Methods: 359 children were divided into six groups according to age and weight status. Each participant carried out one 30-s trial with eyes open (EO) and one 30-s trial with eyes closed (EC). Center of pressure signals were acquired using a Wii Balance Board. Mean velocity in antero-posterior (MVAP) and medio-lateral (MVML) directions and the 95% confidence interval ellipse area were calculated. Results: A Mann Whitney U-test showed significant differences between normal-weight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children in MVAP and MVML in both EO and EC. In 13- to 17-year-old adolescents, there were differences between normal-weight and overweight/obese in ellipse area and MVML, both in EO and EC condition. There were no differences in postural stability between normal-weight and overweight/obese 4- to 7-year-old children. Conclusions: Obesity reduces postural stability only in middle childhood and adolescence but not in early childhood.
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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo
Dinesh John, Qu Tang, Fahd Albinali and Stephen Intille
Background: Physical behavior researchers using motion sensors often use acceleration summaries to visualize, clean, and interpret data. Such output is dependent on device specifications (e.g., dynamic range, sampling rate) and/or are proprietary, which invalidate cross-study comparison of findings when using different devices. This limits flexibility in selecting devices to measure physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Purpose: Develop an open-source, universal acceleration summary metric that accounts for discrepancies in raw data among research and consumer devices. Methods: We used signal processing techniques to generate a Monitor-Independent Movement Summary unit (MIMS-unit) optimized to capture normal human motion. Methodological steps included raw signal harmonization to eliminate inter-device variability (e.g., dynamic g-range, sampling rate), bandpass filtering (0.2–5.0 Hz) to eliminate non-human movement, and signal aggregation to reduce data to simplify visualization and summarization. We examined the consistency of MIMS-units using orbital shaker testing on eight accelerometers with varying dynamic range (±2 to ±8 g) and sampling rates (20–100 Hz), and human data (N = 60) from an ActiGraph GT9X. Results: During shaker testing, MIMS-units yielded lower between-device coefficient of variations than proprietary ActiGraph and ENMO acceleration summaries. Unlike the widely used ActiGraph activity counts, MIMS-units were sensitive in detecting subtle wrist movements during sedentary behaviors. Conclusions: Open-source MIMS-units may provide a means to summarize high-resolution raw data in a device-independent manner, thereby increasing standardization of data cleaning and analytical procedures to estimate selected attributes of physical behavior across studies.
Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen
Background: Parks present opportunities for recreational physical activity and mental relaxation; however, they are underutilized. Methods: The authors examined how changes in management directly and indirectly impacted park use. Using a national sample of 169 parks sampled from 25 cities, the authors linked park management reported via surveys with systematic direct observation of park use, park-based physical activity, and park conditions observed during the spring/summers of 2014 and 2016. The authors used structural equation modeling to estimate longitudinal pathways from changes in park management and conditions to changes in park use. Results: Increases in subsidized meal offerings and greater use of marketing to promote park events predicted increased person-hours of total weekly park use. Pathways predicting park use varied across user and activity type. Conclusion: The authors’ findings suggest that changing park management practices combined with park conditions may promote park use.
Jamie Cleland, Keith Parry and David Radford
This article presents the findings of 2,415 posts collected from two prominent Australian Football League message boards that responded to a racist incident involving a banana being thrown at Adelaide Crows player, Eddie Betts, in August 2016. It adopts Bourdieu’s concept of habitus to examine the online practice of fans for evidence of racist discourse and the extent to which this was supported or contested by fellow fans. The overall findings are that online debates about race in Australian Rules Football and wider Australian society remain divided, with some posters continuing to reflect racial prejudice and discrimination towards non-whites. However, for the vast majority, views deemed to have racist connotations are contested and challenged in a presentation centering on social change and racial equality.
Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton
The aim of this study was to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS) of children aged 3 to 5 years in Irish preschool services during care hours, and investigate the relationship between these two variables. Data were collected from 141 children (50.3% boys, age M = 3.9 ± 0.5 years) across 9 preschool services. Measurements included PA via accelerometry, and proficiency in four FMS (run, vertical jump, throw and catch). The recommended guideline of 15 minutes of PA per hour (min PA/hour) was met by 35% of children (M = 13.6 min PA/hour). Significant differences in mean PA per hour were found by gender, with boys (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than girls (13.0 min PA/ hour), and age, with younger children (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than older (12.6 minutes PA/hour). Percentage of children proficient in the run was high (88.4%), but low across the other skills (4.9%–18.5%). Significant differences were identified by gender for vertical jump with girls scoring higher than boys. No significant relationship was found between FMS and total PA. Low levels of PA and FMS proficiency highlight need for intervention in early years settings to ensure children develop skills to participate in PA.
Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia and Nuria Garatachea
To objectively assess physical activity levels and sedentary behavior in a cohort of Spanish centenarians and their nonagenarian peers. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were objectively measured by an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer in centenarians (n = 18; 83% women; 100.8 ± 0.8 [100–103] years) and nonagenarians (n = 11; 91% women; 93.3 ± 2.5 [90–98] years). Centenarians showed less counts per minute (17.6 ± 7.1 vs. 46.1 ± 23.7, p = .003, d = 1.851) and steps per day (455 ± 237 vs. 1,249 ± 776, p = .007, d = 1.587) than nonagenarians. The daily number of sedentary breaks was also lower in the former (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 6.7 ± 2.0, p = .019, d = 0.971). When observing time distribution, the most active day period in both groups was the morning, with a peak between 10:00 and 11:59. This data suggest that the decline in physical activity levels continues to worsen until the end of the human lifespan.
Jieling Chen, Emily Joy Nicklett, Yaping He and Vivian W.Q. Lou
The study aims to characterize physical activity (PA) participation by intensity and examine the biopsychosocial correlates among middle-aged and older adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in China. Data were examined from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The percentages of participation in vigorous, moderate, and light activity among participants with CKD were 22.7%, 42.1%, and 76.3%, respectively. The participants were less likely to engage in vigorous and moderate PA if they were 70 years of age or older, were not married/partnered, were unemployed, lived in urban areas, had an advanced stage of disease, had heart disease, and/or experienced mobility limitations. The magnitude of the associations between biophysical factors and PA participation was small for light PA. The higher the intensity of regular PA, the less likely older adults with CKD were to participate. Practitioners could consider the psychosocial characteristics of the older adults with CKD and facilitate their participation in PA.
Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall
The aim of this study was to determine the level of physical activity (PA) of older persons at admission and discharge from a Transitional Care Program (TCP) and to examine the correlation between changes in functional outcomes and PA level. Forty-two subjects recruited from two metropolitan TCPs in Brisbane, Australia. On admission to a TCP and within two weeks following hospital discharge, clients were requested to wear an accelerometer for the 7-day period after entry and prior to discharge from TCP. The median (IQR) length of the TCP stay was 56 (43–76) days. On admission, participants spent 1224 (IQR 113.5–1279.7) minutes sitting or lying, 173 (IQR 135.2–249) minutes standing, and 35 (IQR 22.0–54.0) minutes walking per day; while at discharge participants (n = 32) spent 1165.5 (IQR 1112.5–1220.7) minutes lying or sitting (p < .05), 212 (IQR 166.0–264,0) minutes standing (p = .05), and 45.5 (IQR 39.0–65.0) minutes walking (p < .001)] a day. The difference in walking time at admission and discharge is strongly correlated with a change in the Modified Barthel Index (Spearman’s rho = 0.6, p < .001). The implementation of strategies to reduce sedentary time and change clients’ behavior should be considered through promoting PA for TCP clients.
Janet M. Boekhout, Brenda A.J. Berendsen, Denise A. Peels, Catherine A.W. Bolman and Lilian Lechner
This study explores the association between physical activity (PA), loneliness, and the presence of physical chronic impairments among single older adults. A longitudinal study (N = 575; mean age 76 ± 8 years) was conducted. The association between self-reported weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous PA, loneliness, and presence of physical impairments was assessed with multilevel analyses at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Improvements in moderate to vigorous PA were associated with decreases in loneliness (B = −0.09, SE = 0.04, p = .020); this association became nonsignificant when including the presence of physical impairments in the analyses (p = .824), which in itself was positively associated with loneliness (B = 0.51, SE = 0.10, p < .001). Findings indicate that physical impairments have a larger influence on loneliness than the level of PA. Interventions targeting PA and loneliness should tailor specifically to physical impairments.