Exercise remains greatly underutilized in clinical practice for reasons that are only partly understood. This critical review situates the problem within the broader political and economic context. It focuses on depression, the leading cause of disability worldwide, and the processes that followed the inclusion of exercise as a treatment option in clinical practice guidelines in the British National Health Service. The review highlights previously unaddressed phenomena, including antiexercise lobbying by primary care physicians and efforts to present the evidence for the antidepressant effects of exercise as weak, nonexistent, or methodologically flawed. Notably, the field of kinesiology remained silent while these processes unfolded. This information suggests that the path from research evidence to implementation in clinical settings remains dependent on factors beyond the amount and quality of research evidence. The review underscores the need to vigilantly monitor, critically appraise, and actively participate in the clinical research literature and the development of guidelines.
Mengyun Luo, Philayrath Phongsavan, Adrian Bauman, Joel Negin, Zhiruo Zhang, and Ding Ding
The correlates of physical activity differ across domains. The authors explored the contribution of domain-specific physical activity to total physical activity and examined how different sociodemographic and social capital-related variables are associated with different physical activity domains in older adults, using nationally representative samples from six low- to middle-income countries. Activity at work and home combined plays an important role in contributing to total physical activity, while leisure-time physical activity accounted for an extremely small proportion. Some correlates of physical activity were similar across countries, such as working status and structural social capital, while other associations were country specific. Promoting structural social capital, trust, and perceived safety may confer positive benefits on older adults’ activity.
Emmanuel Chiebuka Okoye, Christopher Olusanjo Akosile, Fatai Adesina Maruf, Ifeoma Uchenna Onwuakagba, and Victoria Chinonye Chukwuma
Objectives: To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) into Igbo culture. Methods: The English version of the PASE (E-PASE) was translated into Igbo, harmonized, back-translated, subjected to expert panel review, and pretested. The final Igbo version of PASE (I-PASE), the E-PASE, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were then administered to consecutively recruited 109 consenting Igbo older adults. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman rank-order correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha at .05 level of significance. Results: All items on the E-PASE were retained on the I-PASE but some modifications were made. The I-PASE had poor internal consistency coefficient (α = .66), poor-to-excellent item, and total score known-group validity (ρ = .24–1.00) and moderate convergent validity (ρ = .50). Conclusion: The I-PASE is a valid, reliable, and culturally specific tool for assessing PA among Igbo older adults.
Élvio R. Gouveia, Asim Smailagic, Andreas Ihle, Adilson Marques, Bruna R. Gouveia, Mónica Cameirão, Honorato Sousa, Matthias Kliegel, and Daniel Siewiorek
Background and Objectives: Regular physical exercise can attenuate age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a physical exercise multicomponent training based on exergames on cognitive functioning (CF) in older adults. Research Design and Methods: This randomized controlled trial included older adults aged 61–78. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n = 15) or active control group (CG; n = 16). The IG was exposed to a combined training with traditional exercise and exergaming, twice a week over a period of 12 weeks. The CG performed only traditional sessions. CF was assessed by the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument. The time points for assessment were at zero (pretest), 12 (posttest), and 17 weeks (follow-up). Results: Active CG and IG increased from pretest to posttest in short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), and Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument total score 1.98 > Z < 3.00, ps < .005, with moderately large positive effects (.36 > r < .54). A significant increase was seen from posttest to follow-up in STM, Z = 2.74, p = .006, and LTM, Z = 2.31, p < .021, only in IG. Across the two time periods posttest to follow-up, there were significant interaction effects between program type and time for STM (p = .022,
Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Steven Fix, and Shijun Zhu
This study tested the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the MotionWatch 8 among assisted living residents with and without cognitive impairment. Data from the Dissemination and Implementation of Function Focused Care in Assisted Living Using the Evidence Integration Triangle study were used. The sample included 781 individuals from 85 facilities with a mean age of 89.48 (SD = 7.43) years. The majority were female (71%), White (97%), and overall (44%) had cognitive impairment. A total of 70% were willing to wear the MotionWatch 8. Reliability was supported as there was no difference in time spent in activity across three consecutive wear days. Validity was based on hypothesis testing, and function was associated with counts of activity at baseline (p = .001) and 4 months (p = .001). Those with cognitive impairment engaged in less physical activity (p = .04). The MotionWatch 8 is a useful option for measuring physical activity in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.
Lucy V. Piggott and Jordan J.K. Matthews
Within this article, the authors explore the extent to which the administrative and governance hierarchies, rules, and processes of two English national governing bodies (NGBs) reproduce or resist gender segregation and male dominance within their leadership and governance. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theory of practice, the authors expand upon current literature to better understand the workings of gender power relations at the structural level of organizational practice. Semistructured interviews with male and female leaders were supplemented by an analysis of formal documents. The authors found that gender power relations privileging men were simultaneously conserved and resisted within the two NGBs. While resistance to male-dominated leadership and governance was evident, transformational organizational change was lacking. This highlighted the limitations of strategies being primarily driven through top-down, policy-based approaches. The authors end the article by emphasizing the importance of a combined approach at the structural, cultural, and individual levels to enable sustainable and transformational organizational change.
Cristian Jaque, Phillip Véliz, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Jason Moran, Paulo Gentil, and Jorge Cancino
The authors compared the effects of bodyweight resistance training at moderate- or high-speed conditions on muscle power, velocity of movement, and functional performance in older females. In a randomized, single-blinded noncontrolled trial, participants completed 12 weeks (three sessions/week) of bodyweight resistance training at high (n = 14; age = 70.6 ± 4.3 years) or moderate (n = 12; age = 72.8 ± 4.2 years) speeds. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (Group × Time) with α level set at <.05. After the intervention, timed up and go test performance (p < .05) and the rising from a chair test mean (22.4%) and maximal velocity (28.5%), mean (24.4%) and maximal power (27.7%), normalized mean (25.1%), and normalized maximal power (28.5%) increased in the high-speed group (p < .05). However, the moderate-speed group achieved no improvements (Δ6.7–14.4%; p > .2). The authors conclude that high-speed bodyweight resistance training is an effective and economically practical strategy to improve the functional capacity of older women relevant to daily life activities.
Christine E. Wegner, Bradley J. Baker, and Gareth J. Jones
Volunteers provide essential services to community sport organizations; thus, it is important to understand the underlying factors in successful volunteer–organization relationships. Organizational identification, an integral component of relationship building for members in an organization, is a useful yet underutilized concept to understand how and why volunteers create lasting, deep relationships with sport organizations. This research utilizes a sequential mixed-method design to examine the evolution of organizational identification among volunteers in a community sport organization. The survey results indicate that new volunteers formed their organizational identification over the course of a single program season, such that, by the end of the season, they were similar to returners. Subsequent qualitative analysis of focus group data indicated that the content and evolution of organizational identities varied for newcomers and returners. These results provide important contributions related to the ongoing nature of identity work of volunteers and offer practical implications for volunteer management within community sport organizations.
Lucas Ugliara, James J. Tufano, Martim Bottaro, and Amilton Vieira
Measuring ankle torque is of paramount importance. This study compared the test–retest reliability of the plantar flexion torque–generating capacity between older and younger men. Twenty-one older (68 ± 6 years) and 22 younger (25 ± 5 years) men were tested twice for maximal isometric plantar flexion. Peak torque (PT), rate of torque development, and contractile impulses (CI) were obtained from 0 to 50 ms (rate of torque development0–50; CI0–50) and from 100 to 200 ms (rate of torque development100–200; CI100–200). Typical error as the coefficient of variation (CVTE) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to assess test–retest reliability. Student’s t test was applied to investigate systematic errors. The CVTE ratio was used for between-group comparisons. Only PT demonstrated acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ .75 and CV ≤ 10%). Older men demonstrated greater CVTE than younger men for PT (ratio = 2.24), but lesser for rapid torque (ratio ≤ 0.84). Younger men demonstrated systematic error for PT (6.5%) and CI100–200 (−8.9%). In conclusion, older men demonstrated greater variability for maximal torque output, but lesser for rapid torque.
Yi-Ling Hu, Marian Keglovits, Emily Somerville, Makenna Snyder, and Susan Stark
The Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise Program (LiFE) is proven to have high adherence rates and can significantly reduce falls, but it has not yet been implemented for diverse older adults residing in urban medically underserved (MU) areas. An exploratory sequential mixed methods study was conducted to adapt LiFE and test the adapted program’s preliminary feasibility. Focus groups with MU older adults and service providers were conducted to identify modifications. The new adapted program, Diverse Older Adults Doing LiFE (DO LiFE), was then evaluated with older adults. Thematic analysis revealed health literacy and lack of racial representation as barriers to implementing LIFE in this population. The pilot study showed that DO LiFE was feasible with good retention (89%) and high adherence (81.27%) rates. DO LiFE demonstrated preliminary feasibility for diverse MU older adults. Researchers should proceed to larger studies for translating DO LiFE from research to the community.