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Tiago Duarte, Diane M. Culver and Kyle Paquette

The purpose of this paper is to delineate how an intervention aimed at increasing the learning capability of Canadian wheelchair curling coaches was framed by a systems convener in collaboration with stakeholders from different levels. Social learning theory, in particular a landscape of practice perspective, provides the conceptual framework. The methodology was collaborative inquiry with people from across the landscape to delineate the intervention strategies through cycles of reflection and action. The participants included parasport coaches, researchers, and Curling Canada technical leaders. Based on preintervention findings, the intervention was driven by (a) the use of technology to overcome barriers and the implementation of learning activities at competitions, (b) the use of a collective learning map to promote meaningful learning, (c) the involvement of the sport organization leadership to promote the participation of influential people, and (d) a reflection of how subpar outcomes occurred when the systems convener failed to engage with the sport organization leadership. The discussion sheds light on the many roles of systems conveners and the importance of promoting strategic and enabling values. Sport organizations should engage a systems convener who can effectively align learning goals with the available resources and the strategic mission of the organization.

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Dae Hee Kwak and Sean Pradhan

Three experiments explore how sport consumers respond to sponsor advertisements featuring a team that lost a pivotal game. Drawing from social identity and appraisal theories, the authors hypothesize and find that high identifiers experience stronger negative emotions but less identity threat than low identifiers following their favorite team’s loss. When an advertisement features the losing team, low identifiers show less favorable evaluations toward the brand, whereas high identifiers report more favorable assessments. The results demonstrate that the tendency to hide and escape from the source of threat (losing team) among low identifiers is evidenced in processing marketing communications, whereas high identifiers display more positive evaluations toward the brand when the advertisement acknowledged the loss. The study findings provide implications for sponsors to consider different messaging strategies depending on the level of team identification with the losing team.

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Jaap van Dieen

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Giuseppe delli Paoli, Denise van de Laarschot, Edith C.H. Friesema, Remco Verkaik, Antonia Giacco, Rosalba Senese, Pascal P. Arp, P. Mila Jhamai, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Linda Broer, André G. Uitterlinden, Antonia Lanni, M. Carola Zillikens and Pieter de Lange

Fasting enhances the beneficial metabolic outcomes of exercise; however, it is unknown whether body composition is favorably modified on the short term. A baseline–follow-up study was carried out to assess the effect of an established protocol involving short-term combined exercise with fasting on body composition. One hundred seven recreationally exercising males underwent a 10-day intervention across 15 fitness centers in the Netherlands involving a 3-day gradual decrease of food intake, a 3-day period with extremely low caloric intake, and a gradual 4-day increase to initial caloric intake, with daily 30-min submaximal cycling. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis, all subjects substantially lost total body mass (−3.9 ± 1.9 kg; p < .001) and fat mass (−3.3 ± 1.3 kg; p < .001). Average lean mass was lost (−0.6 ± 1.5 kg; p < .001), but lean mass as a percentage of total body mass was not reduced. The authors observed a loss of −3.9 ± 1.9% android fat over total fat mass (p < .001), a loss of −2.2 ± 1.9% gynoid over total fat mass (p < .001), and reduced android/gynoid ratios (−0.05 ± 0.1; p < .001). Analyzing 15 preselected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 13 metabolism-related genes revealed trending associations for thyroid state–related single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs225014 (deiodinase 2) and rs35767 (insulin-like growth factor1), and rs1053049 (PPARD). In conclusion, a short period of combined fasting and exercise leads to a substantial loss of body and fat mass without a loss of lean mass as a percentage of total mass.

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Ainara Jiménez-Alonso, Mar Cepero, Sergio Miras-Moreno, F. Javier Rojas and Amador García-Ramos

This study explored the impact of different frequencies of knowledge of results (KR) on velocity performance during ballistic training. Fifteen males completed four identical sessions (three sets of six repetitions at 30% one-repetition maximum during the countermovement jump and bench press throw) with the only difference of the KR condition provided: no feedback, velocity feedback after the first half of repetitions of each set (HalfKR), velocity feedback immediately after each repetition (ImKR), and feedback of the average velocity of each set (AvgKR). When compared with the control condition, the ImKR reported the highest velocity performance (1.9–5.3%), followed by the HalfKR (1.3–3.6%) and AvgKR (0.7–4.3%). These results support the verbal provision of velocity performance feedback after every repetition to induce acute improvements in velocity performance.

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Scott Rathwell, Bradley W. Young, Bettina Callary, Derrik Motz, Matt D. Hoffmann and Chelsea Currie

Adult sportspersons (Masters athletes, aged 35 years and older) have unique coaching preferences. No existing resources provide coaches with feedback on their craft with Masters athletes. Three studies evaluated an Adult-Oriented Coaching Survey. Study 1 vetted the face validity of 50 survey items with 12 Masters coaches. Results supported the validity of 48 items. In Study 2, 383 Masters coaches completed the survey of 50 items. Confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modeling indicated issues with model fit. Post hoc modifications improved fit, resulting in a 22-item, five-factor model. In Study 3, 467 Masters athletes responded to these 22 items reflecting perceptions of their coaches. Confirmatory factor analysis (comparative fit index = .951, standardized root mean square residual = .036, and root mean square error of approximation = .049) and exploratory structural equation modeling (comparative fit index = .977, standardized root mean square residual = .019, and root mean square error of approximation = .041) confirmed the model. The resultant Adult-Oriented Sport Coaching Survey provides a reliable and factorially valid instrument for measuring adult-oriented coaching practices.

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Teresa Zwierko, Wojciech Jedziniak, Beata Florkiewicz, Halil İbrahim Ceylan, Piotr Lesiakowski, Marta Śliwiak, Marta Kirkiewicz and Wojciech Lubiński

The aim of the study was to explore the functional impairments and related factors in older adults with moderate to advanced stages of glaucoma. Nineteen patients with glaucoma and 19 participants with no ocular disease performed step test and balance control tasks with analysis of overall stability index and fall risk index. Monocular and binocular Humphrey Visual Field tests were used to estimate visual field defect severity. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity level. Patients with glaucoma showed poorer values for most of the mobility and balance control parameters with medium and large effect sizes (0.3–0.5). Mobility scores in patients were partly associated with their monocular visual field defect (rs = .507, p < .05). Low physical activity was identified as a risk factor for falls (rs = −.453, p < .05) and postural instability (rs = −.457, p < .05). Functional declines in dynamic tasks were not related to glaucoma severity. Older adults with glaucoma display impairment with mobility and balance control compared to controls, associated with the degree of monocular visual field loss and lower daily physical activity.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Matthew Stork and Svenja Wolf

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Samuel J. Callaghan, Robert G. Lockie, Walter Yu, Warren A. Andrews, Robert F. Chipchase and Sophia Nimphius

Purpose: To investigate whether changes in delivery length (ie, short, good, and full) lead to alterations in whole-body biomechanical loading as determined by ground reaction force during front-foot contact of the delivery stride for pace bowlers. Current load-monitoring practices of pace bowling in cricket assume equivocal biomechanical loading as only the total number of deliveries are monitored irrespective of delivery length. Methods: A total of 16 male pace bowlers completed a 2-over spell at maximum intensity while targeting different delivery lengths (short, 7–10 m; good, 4–7 m; and full, 0–4 m from the batter’s stumps). In-ground force plates were used to determine discrete (vertical and braking force, impulse, and loading rates) and continuous front-foot contact ground reaction force. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (P < .05), effects size, and statistical parametrical mapping were used to determine differences between delivery lengths. Results: There were no significant differences between short, good, and full delivery lengths for the discrete and continuous kinetic variables investigated (P = .19–1.00), with trivial to small effect sizes. Conclusion: There were minimal differences in front-foot contact biomechanics for deliveries of different lengths (ie, short, good, and full). These data reinforce current pace bowling load-monitoring practices (ie, counting the number of deliveries), as changes in delivery length do not affect the whole-body biomechanical loading experienced by pace bowlers. This is of practical importance as it retains simplicity in load-monitoring practice that is used widely across different competition levels and ages.

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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Thaís Reichert, Vitória Bones and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

Background: There are a lack of clinical trials with suitable methodological quality that compare aquatic exercise training types in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatment. This study aimed to compare the effects of aerobic and combined aquatic training on cardiorespiratory outcomes in patients with T2D. Methods: Untrained patients with T2D were randomized to receive an aerobic aquatic training, a combined aquatic training, or a procedure control in 3 weekly sessions for 15 weeks. The sessions were 50 minutes long. The intensities were from 85% to 100% of heart rate of anaerobic threshold and at maximal velocity for aerobic and resistance parts, respectively. Resting heart rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and its relation with VO2peak were evaluated. Results: Participants were 59.0 (8.2) years old and 51% women. Intervention groups increased in VO2peak (aerobic aquatic training group: 4.48 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = .004; combined aquatic training group: 5.27 mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .006) and oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold, whereas the control group presented an increase in oxygen uptake corresponding to second ventilatory threshold and minimal change in VO2peak. Conclusions: Aerobic and combined aquatic exercise interventions improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of patients with T2D.