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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) results in a global decrease in information processing, ultimately resulting in dysfunction executing motor-cognitive tasks. Motor-cognitive impairments contribute to postural instability, often leading to falls and decreased physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a multimodal training (MMT) versus single-modal (SMT) training on motor symptoms, fall frequency, and physical activity in patients with PD classified as fallers. Methods: Individuals with PD were randomized into SMT (n = 11) or MMT (n = 10) and completed training 3 times per week for 8 weeks. The SMT completed gait and cognitive training separately, whereas MMT completed gait and cognitive training simultaneously during each 45-minute session. Physical activity, 30-day fall frequency, and PD motor symptoms were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and during a 4-week follow-up. Results: Both groups exhibited significant (P < .05) improvements in clinical ratings of motor function, as symptoms improved by 8% and 15% for SMT and MMT, respectively. Physical activity significantly increased (P < .05) for both groups from baseline (mean steps 4942 [4415]) to posttreatment (mean steps 5914 [5425]). The MMT resulted in a significant 60% reduction in falls. Conclusions: Although SMT and MMT approaches are both effective in improving physical activity and motor symptoms of PD, only MMT reduced fall frequency after the intervention.

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Christian A. Clermont, Lauren C. Benson, W. Brent Edwards, Blayne A. Hettinga and Reed Ferber

The purpose of this study was to use wearable technology data to quantify alterations in subject-specific running patterns throughout a marathon race and to determine if runners could be clustered into subgroups based on similar trends in running gait alterations throughout the marathon. Using a wearable sensor, data were collected for cadence, braking, bounce, pelvic rotation, pelvic drop, and ground contact time for 27 runners. A composite index was calculated based on the “typical” data (4–14 km) for each runner and evaluated for 14 individual 2-km sections thereafter to detect “atypical” data (ie, higher indices). A cluster analysis assigned all runners to a subgroup based on similar trends in running alterations. Results indicated that the indices became significantly higher starting at 20 to 22 km. Cluster 1 exhibited lower indices than cluster 2 throughout the marathon, and the only significant difference in characteristics between clusters was that cluster 1 had a lower age–grade performance score than cluster 2. In summary, this study presented a novel method to investigate the effects of fatigue on running biomechanics using wearable technology in a real-world setting. Recreational runners with higher age–grade performance scores had less atypical running patterns throughout the marathon compared with runners with lower age–grade performance scores.

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Clayton R. Kuklick and Brian T. Gearity

Sociologists of sport and coaching have repeatedly drawn upon the theoretical tools of Michel Foucault to map and critique the negative effects of coaches’ use of disciplinary practices. Three SCCs and two coach developers participated in multiple learning community meetings interrogating Foucault’s concepts to understand how power moves, create new, less disciplinary practices, and address the problems produced by too much discipline. The findings present new conceptual tools to train and move differently by disrupting disciplinary practices: spasmodic tempo training, atemporal training, variable geographic training, variable intra-geographic training, fluid and fragmented periodization, explorative coaching, and strength coach as sage. We call for an appreciation of poststructural informed sport coaching and the development of a discursive sociology of sport coaching praxis.

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Tom Clifford

Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) manifests as muscle soreness, inflammation, and reductions in force generating capacity that can last for several days after exercise. The ability to recover and repair damaged tissues following EIMD is impaired with age, with older adults (≥50 years old) experiencing a slower rate of recovery than their younger counterparts do for the equivalent exercise bout. This narrative review discusses the literature examining the effect of nutritional or pharmacological supplements taken to counter the potentially debilitating effects of EIMD in older adults. Studies have assessed the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vitamin C and/or E, or higher protein diets on recovery in older adults. Each intervention showed some promise for attenuating EIMD, but, overall, there is a paucity of available data in this population, and more studies are required to determine the influence of nutrition or pharmacological interventions on EIMD in older adults.

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Xavier García-Massó, Adrià Marco-Ahulló, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Julio Álvarez-Pitti and Jose-Luis Bermejo

Introduction: Overweight/obese children have postural control differences compared with normal-weight children. Nevertheless, there are not studies that analyze the effect of obesity during the entire period comprised between childhood and adolescence. The objective of this study was to determine the differences in postural control between normal-weight and overweight/obese participants during early and middle childhood and adolescence. Methods: 359 children were divided into six groups according to age and weight status. Each participant carried out one 30-s trial with eyes open (EO) and one 30-s trial with eyes closed (EC). Center of pressure signals were acquired using a Wii Balance Board. Mean velocity in antero-posterior (MVAP) and medio-lateral (MVML) directions and the 95% confidence interval ellipse area were calculated. Results: A Mann Whitney U-test showed significant differences between normal-weight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children in MVAP and MVML in both EO and EC. In 13- to 17-year-old adolescents, there were differences between normal-weight and overweight/obese in ellipse area and MVML, both in EO and EC condition. There were no differences in postural stability between normal-weight and overweight/obese 4- to 7-year-old children. Conclusions: Obesity reduces postural stability only in middle childhood and adolescence but not in early childhood.

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Dinesh John, Qu Tang, Fahd Albinali and Stephen Intille

Background: Physical behavior researchers using motion sensors often use acceleration summaries to visualize, clean, and interpret data. Such output is dependent on device specifications (e.g., dynamic range, sampling rate) and/or are proprietary, which invalidate cross-study comparison of findings when using different devices. This limits flexibility in selecting devices to measure physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Purpose: Develop an open-source, universal acceleration summary metric that accounts for discrepancies in raw data among research and consumer devices. Methods: We used signal processing techniques to generate a Monitor-Independent Movement Summary unit (MIMS-unit) optimized to capture normal human motion. Methodological steps included raw signal harmonization to eliminate inter-device variability (e.g., dynamic g-range, sampling rate), bandpass filtering (0.2–5.0 Hz) to eliminate non-human movement, and signal aggregation to reduce data to simplify visualization and summarization. We examined the consistency of MIMS-units using orbital shaker testing on eight accelerometers with varying dynamic range (±2 to ±8 g) and sampling rates (20–100 Hz), and human data (N = 60) from an ActiGraph GT9X. Results: During shaker testing, MIMS-units yielded lower between-device coefficient of variations than proprietary ActiGraph and ENMO acceleration summaries. Unlike the widely used ActiGraph activity counts, MIMS-units were sensitive in detecting subtle wrist movements during sedentary behaviors. Conclusions: Open-source MIMS-units may provide a means to summarize high-resolution raw data in a device-independent manner, thereby increasing standardization of data cleaning and analytical procedures to estimate selected attributes of physical behavior across studies.

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Andrea Richardson, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson and Deborah Cohen

Background: Parks present opportunities for recreational physical activity and mental relaxation; however, they are underutilized. Methods: The authors examined how changes in management directly and indirectly impacted park use. Using a national sample of 169 parks sampled from 25 cities, the authors linked park management reported via surveys with systematic direct observation of park use, park-based physical activity, and park conditions observed during the spring/summers of 2014 and 2016. The authors used structural equation modeling to estimate longitudinal pathways from changes in park management and conditions to changes in park use. Results: Increases in subsidized meal offerings and greater use of marketing to promote park events predicted increased person-hours of total weekly park use. Pathways predicting park use varied across user and activity type. Conclusion: The authors’ findings suggest that changing park management practices combined with park conditions may promote park use.

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Jamie Cleland, Keith Parry and David Radford

This article presents the findings of 2,415 posts collected from two prominent Australian Football League message boards that responded to a racist incident involving a banana being thrown at Adelaide Crows player, Eddie Betts, in August 2016. It adopts Bourdieu’s concept of habitus to examine the online practice of fans for evidence of racist discourse and the extent to which this was supported or contested by fellow fans. The overall findings are that online debates about race in Australian Rules Football and wider Australian society remain divided, with some posters continuing to reflect racial prejudice and discrimination towards non-whites. However, for the vast majority, views deemed to have racist connotations are contested and challenged in a presentation centering on social change and racial equality.

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Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien and Sarahjane Belton

The aim of this study was to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS) of children aged 3 to 5 years in Irish preschool services during care hours, and investigate the relationship between these two variables. Data were collected from 141 children (50.3% boys, age M = 3.9 ± 0.5 years) across 9 preschool services. Measurements included PA via accelerometry, and proficiency in four FMS (run, vertical jump, throw and catch). The recommended guideline of 15 minutes of PA per hour (min PA/hour) was met by 35% of children (M = 13.6 min PA/hour). Significant differences in mean PA per hour were found by gender, with boys (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than girls (13.0 min PA/ hour), and age, with younger children (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than older (12.6 minutes PA/hour). Percentage of children proficient in the run was high (88.4%), but low across the other skills (4.9%–18.5%). Significant differences were identified by gender for vertical jump with girls scoring higher than boys. No significant relationship was found between FMS and total PA. Low levels of PA and FMS proficiency highlight need for intervention in early years settings to ensure children develop skills to participate in PA.

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Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia and Nuria Garatachea

To objectively assess physical activity levels and sedentary behavior in a cohort of Spanish centenarians and their nonagenarian peers. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were objectively measured by an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer in centenarians (n = 18; 83% women; 100.8 ± 0.8 [100–103] years) and nonagenarians (n = 11; 91% women; 93.3 ± 2.5 [90–98] years). Centenarians showed less counts per minute (17.6 ± 7.1 vs. 46.1 ± 23.7, p = .003, d = 1.851) and steps per day (455 ± 237 vs. 1,249 ± 776, p = .007, d = 1.587) than nonagenarians. The daily number of sedentary breaks was also lower in the former (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 6.7 ± 2.0, p = .019, d = 0.971). When observing time distribution, the most active day period in both groups was the morning, with a peak between 10:00 and 11:59. This data suggest that the decline in physical activity levels continues to worsen until the end of the human lifespan.