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Marcelo Toledo-Vargas, Patricio Perez-Contreras, Damian Chandia-Poblete and Nicolas Aguilar-Farias

Background: The purpose was to determine the proportion of 9- to 11-year-old children meeting the 24-hour movement guidelines (24-HMG) in a low-income town from Chile. Methods: Physical activity, sedentary behavior (recreational screen), and sleep times were measured with both questionnaire and accelerometer in 258 children from third to sixth grade. Meeting the 24-HMG was defined as having ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity, ≤2 hour day of screen time, and 9 to 11 hours of sleep per night. Compliance rates were calculated as self-reported 24-HMG, with all estimations based on questionnaires, and mixed 24-HMG, in which physical activity and sleep were determined with an accelerometer and sedentary behavior was determined with a questionnaire. Results: About 198 children (10.1 [0.8] y, range 9–11 y) provided valid data for estimating self-reported 24-HMG, and 141 for mixed 24-HMG. Only 3.2% and 0.7% met the 24-HMG when using the self-reported and mixed methods, respectively. When assessing individual recommendations, 13.1% and 3.7% of the sample were physically active based on the self-report and accelerometer, respectively. About a quarter met the sedentary behavior recommendations, while around 50% met the sleep recommendations with both self-reported and mixed methods. Conclusions: An extremely low percentage of the participants met the 24-HMG. Multicomponent initiatives must be implemented to promote healthy movement behaviors in Chilean children.

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Gina M. Besenyi, Emi B. Hayashi and Richard W. Christiana

Background: Health care providers (HCPs) promoting physical activity (PA) through programs such as Park Prescriptions (ParkRx) are gaining momentum. However, it is difficult to realize provider PA practices and program interest, and differences in program success exist by provider type (eg, primary vs secondary). This study explored HCPs’ (1) PA counseling practices, (2) knowledge/interest in ParkRx, (3) barriers and resources needed to implement PA counseling and ParkRx programs, and (4) differences in primary versus secondary HCPs. Methods: An e-survey administered in Spring/Summer 2018 to HCPs in 3 states examined study objectives. Results: Respondents (n = 278) were mostly primary (58.3%) HCPs. The majority asked about patient PA habits and offered PA counseling (mean = 5.0, SD = 1.5; mean = 4.8, SD = 1.5), but few provided written prescriptions (mean = 2.5, SD = 1.6). Providers were satisfied with their PA counseling knowledge (mean = 3.8, SD = 1.0) but not with prescribing practices (mean = 3.2, SD = 1.1). Secondary HCPs placed higher importance (P = .012) and provided significantly more written PA prescriptions (P = .005). Time was a common barrier to prescribing PA (mean = 3.4, SD = 1.2), though more so for primary HCPs (P = .000). Although few HCPs knew about ParkRx programs, 81.6% expressed interest. Access to park information and community partnerships was an important resource for program implementation. Conclusions: HCPs underutilize PA prescriptions. Despite little awareness, HCPs were interested in ParkRx programs.

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Tanya Tripathi, Stacey C. Dusing, Peter E. Pidcoe, Yaoying Xu, Mary S. Shall and Daniel L. Riddle

Aims: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends “parents to incorporate supervised, awake ‘prone play’ in their infant’s routine to support motor development and minimize the risk of plagiocephaly”. The purpose of this feasibility study was to compare usual care to a reward contingency–based intervention, developed to increase prone tolerance and improve motor skills. Methods: Ten full-term infants, 3–6- months old, with poor prone tolerance were randomized to either the Education group or Reward contingency group. Each group participated in three parent education sessions and 15 intervention sessions, over the period of three weeks. Infants in the Reward contingency group used the Prone Play Activity Center, a technology developed to reinforce motor behavior of infants in prone position. Intervention frequency and parent feedback data determined the feasibility of the interventions. Results: Infants in the Reward contingency group practiced a median of 12 of the 15 anticipated intervention sessions in the Prone Play Activity Center. These infants used the device for a mean of 18 minutes per day. Parents of infants in the Education group practiced a median of 10 sessions of the 15 anticipated intervention sessions. Conclusion: The reward contingency–based intervention is feasible for use in a future clinical trial with some modifications.

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Charlotte Skau Pawlowski, Henriette Bondo Andersen and Jasper Schipperijn

Background: It remains unclear if schoolyard interventions “just” provide more opportunities for those children who are already active. The authors wanted to investigate schoolyard use and physical activity (PA) among the least-active children during recess following schoolyard renewals. Methods: An intervention study design with preresults and postresults comparison was used. Accelerometer and global positioning system data were collected at 6 Danish schools from 553 children at baseline and 439 after renewals (grades 4–9). Based on mean minutes of recess moderate to vigorous PA per child per school, the least-active children were defined as all children in the lowest activity quartile at baseline and follow-up, respectively. Results: One hundred and thirty-five children (70% girls) at baseline and 108 (76% girls) at follow-up were categorized as the least-active children. At follow-up they accumulated more time (12.1 min/d) and PA (4.4 min/d) in the schoolyard during recess compared with baseline. The difference in schoolyard PA found for the least-active children was relatively small compared with the difference for all children. Conclusions: Solely improving the physical schoolyard environment seemed to have limited impact on the least-active children’s PA. Future studies should investigate the complex interrelations between the least-active children and the entire schoolyard environment.

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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson and Jill Maples

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of evidence-based educational materials and access to local resources on physical activity (PA) levels, beliefs, and motivation (including self-efficacy) regarding PA during pregnancy in a rural setting. Methods: Information on PA levels (step counts, Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire) and beliefs and motivation regarding PA (main surveys: Exercise Beliefs Questionnaire, Protection Motivation Theory and Health Action Process Approach) were collected between 8 and 16 weeks gestation. Women from a rural community were randomly assigned to the PA group (PAG, n = 38) or control group (n = 32). The PAG participants received an evidence-based educational brochure and access (at no charge to them) to local fitness facilities. At approximately 34 to 37 weeks gestation, baseline assessments were repeated. Results: Sedentary time was significantly different between groups over time, with control participants increasing sedentary time and PAG participants decreasing sedentary time (P = .04). Sixteen women (42%) in the PAG utilized the resources provided (prenatal yoga being utilized most). Postintervention, there was a significant group × time interaction for Perceived Self-Efficacy scores; scores in the PAG remained consistent with baseline values, whereas scores in the control group decreased (P = .03). Conclusions: The intervention reduced sedentary time and maintained self-efficacy scores during pregnancy.

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Christiane Lange-Küttner and Ridhi Kochhar

Introduction: The Common Region Test (CRT) is useful for predicting children’s visual memory as individual object-place binding predicted better object memory while objects-region coding predicted better place memory. Aim: To test children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with regards to spatial binding in the CRT. Methods: 19 children with ASD and 20 children with ADHD were gender-matched with 39 typically developing children by chronological age and with another 39 children by verbal mental age as control groups (N = 117) and tested with the CRT and Bender Gestalt test. Results: Children with ASD and ADHD showed more unsystematic coding than typically developing children. This was due to lower fine motor skills, and in children with ADHD also because of reduced verbal naming. Almost all children with ASD presented the less mature under-inclusive Type I unsystematic coding which included object-place binding, while children with ADHD showed the over-inclusive Type II unsystematic coding that was overriding the Gestalt-like properties of proximity and similarity. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that the CRT is a useful screening instrument for ASD and ADHD that shows that their spatial categorization varies in their unsystematic visuo-spatial classification due to fine motor skill deficiencies.

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Berit Brandes, Christoph Buck, Marvin N. Wright, Claudia R. Pischke and Mirko Brandes

Background: To evaluate a multicomponent health promotion program targeting preschoolers’ physical activity (PA). Methods: PA of children from 23 German daycare facilities (DFs; 13 intervention DFs, 10 control DFs) was measured via accelerometry at baseline and after 12 months. Children’s sedentary time, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA were estimated. Adherence was tracked with paper-and-pencil calendars. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to assess intervention effects. Results: PA data were analyzed from 183 (4.2 [0.8] y, 48.1% boys) children. At follow-up, children in DF groups with more than 50% adherence to PA intervention components showed an increase of 9 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per day (β = 9.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.16 to 18.72) and a 19-minute decrease in sedentary time (β = −19.25; 95% CI, −43.66 to 5.16) compared with the control group, whereas children’s PA of those who were exposed to no or less than 50% adherence remained unchanged (moderate to vigorous PA: β = 0.34; 95% CI, −13.73 to 14.41; sedentary time: β = 1.78; 95% CI, −26.54 to 30.09). Notable effects were found in children with migration background. Conclusions: Only small benefits in PA outcomes were observed after 1 year. A minimum of 50% adherence to the intervention seems to be crucial for facilitating intervention effects.

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Yannick Lacoste, Kelsey Needham Dancause, Justine Gosselin-Gagne and Tegwen Gadais

Background: The health benefits of physical activity (PA) for children are well documented. However, little is known about PA patterns among immigrant children. Methods: The authors reviewed research on PA patterns of immigrant children. The inclusion criteria included peer-reviewed articles published from January 2010 to May 2018 in English, French, or Spanish that included primary-school-aged (6–12 y) children, and data on immigration status. Results: A total of 11 articles were included in the analyses. These studies revealed a deficit of PA among immigrant children. Immigration status (immigrant or nonimmigrant) and generation of immigration (first, second, and third), ethnic origin, and gender were associated with PA patterns. In general, PA levels were lower among first-generation immigrant children, children of Hispanic and East Asian origin, and girls. The results suggest that questionnaire measures might be biased or inaccurate among immigrant children, highlighting the need for the integration of mixed methods (objective and subjective measures). Conclusions: A large proportion of children do not meet PA guidelines, and this might be more problematic for immigrant children. Future studies incorporating time since immigration, comparative analyses on gender, sociocultural and socioeconomic characteristics, and mixed methodology could provide a more complete portrait of PA patterns and opportunities for immigrant children.

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Sanne L.C. Veldman, Rachel A. Jones, Rebecca M. Stanley, Dylan P. Cliff, Stewart A. Vella, Steven J. Howard, Anne-Maree Parrish and Anthony D. Okely

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of an embedded after-school intervention, on promoting physical activity and academic achievement in primary-school-aged children. Methods: This 6-month, 2-arm cluster randomized controlled trial involved 4 after-school centers. Two centers were randomly assigned to the intervention, which involved training the center staff on and implementing structured physical activity (team sports and physical activity sessions for 75 min) and academic enrichment activities (45 min). The activities were implemented 3 afternoons per week for 2.5 hours. The control centers continued their usual after-school care practice. After-school physical activity (accelerometry) and executive functions (working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility) were assessed pre- and postintervention. Results: A total of 60 children were assessed (7.7 [1.8] y; 50% girls) preintervention and postintervention (77% retention rate). Children in the intervention centers spent significantly more time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (adjusted difference = 2.4%; 95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 4.2; P = .026) and scored higher on cognitive flexibility (adjusted difference = 1.9 units; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 3.0; P = .009). About 92% of the intervention sessions were implemented. The participation rates varied between 51% and 94%. Conclusion: This after-school intervention was successful at increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity and enhancing cognitive flexibility in children. As the intervention was implemented by the center staff and local university students, further testing for effectiveness and scalability in a larger trial is required.

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Samira Moeinirad, Behrouz Abdoli, Alireza Farsi and Nasour Ahmadi

The quiet eye is a characteristic of highly skilled perceptual and motor performance that is considered as the final fixation toward a target before movement initiation. The aim of this study was to extend quiet eye–related knowledge by investigating expertise effects on overall quiet eye duration among expert and near-expert basketball players, as well as to determine the relative contribution of early and late visual information in a basketball jump shot by comparing the timing components of quiet eye duration (early and late quite eye). Twenty-seven expert and near-expert male basketball players performed the jump shots. Gaze was recorded with the SensoMotoric Instruments eye tracking glasses and shooting performance accuracy was evaluated by scoring each shot on a scale of 1–8. Six infrared cameras circularly arranged around the participants were used to collect the kinematic information of the players. The performance accuracy, gaze behavior, and kinematic characteristics of the participants during the test were calculated. The experts with longer quiet eye duration had better performance in a basketball jump shot compared to the near-experts. Also the experts had longer early and late quiet eye duration than the near-experts. The results revealed a relationship between quiet eye duration and performance. The combined visual strategy is a more efficient strategy in complex far-aiming tasks such as a basketball jump shot.