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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger

The purpose of this study was to determine expert consensus regarding the essential characteristics of adapted physical education practicum experiences for preservice physical educators. Researchers used a 3-round Delphi procedure involving the repeated circulation of an online questionnaire to a panel of content experts (N = 24). During Round 1, panelists generated 70 items in response to an open-ended prompt. Then, panelists rated these recommendations on importance and feasibility in the following rounds. After the third round, 23 items were eliminated for failing to reach consensus. Of the remaining 47 items, 24 were both very important and feasible (both means >6), 21 were very important (mean ≥ 6) and probably feasible (mean ≥ 5), and 2 were feasible (mean ≥ 6) and moderately important (mean ≥ 5). Four major themes were identified through a post hoc qualitative cluster analysis: program context, teaching and learning activities, outcomes/soft skills, and evaluation of instructor performance.

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Pierre Lepage, Gordon A. Bloom and William R. Falcão

The purpose of this study was to understand the learning experiences and acquisition of knowledge of youth parasport coaches. Five able-bodied male participants (M = 39 years old), who coached youth with a physical disability for an average of 7.4 years, participated in individual interviews. An inductive thematic analysis identified patterns within and across the data, allowing for description and interpretation of the meaning and importance of the themes. The results showed that coaches learned mostly from informal experiences, particularly through mentoring, trial and error, or use of technology. In addition, these learning opportunities were influenced by personal, environmental, and social factors. These findings can help to guide current and future generations of coaches of youth participants with a physical disability by highlighting available resources and addressing several barriers and facilitators to their learning.

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Samuel T. Tebeck, Jonathan D. Buckley, Clint R. Bellenger and Jamie Stanley

Purpose: To investigate the effect of a 5-day short-term heat acclimation (STHA) protocol in dry (43°C and 20% relative humidity) or humid (32°C and 80% relative humidity) environmental conditions on endurance cycling performance in temperate conditions (21°C). Methods: In a randomized, cross-over design, 11 cyclists completed each of the two 5-day blocks of STHA matched for heat index (44°C) and total exposure time (480 min), separated by 30 days. Pre- and post-STHA temperate endurance performance (4-min mean maximal power, lactate threshold 1 and 2) was assessed; in addition, a heat stress test was used to assess individual levels of heat adaptation. Results: Differences in endurance performance were unclear. Following dry STHA, gross mechanical efficiency was likely reduced (between-condition effect size dry vs humid −0.59; 90% confidence interval, −1.05 to −0.15), oxygen uptake was likely increased for a given workload (0.64 [0.14 to 1.07]), and energy expenditure likely increased (0.59 [0.17 to 1.03]). Plasma volume expansion at day 5 of acclimation was similar (within-condition outcome 4.6% [6.3%] and 5.3% [5.1%] dry and humid, respectively) but was retained for 3 to 4 days longer after the final humid STHA exposure (−0.2% [8.1%] and 4.5% [4.2%] dry and humid, respectively). Sweat rate was very likely increased during dry STHA (0.57 [0.25 to 0.89]) and possibly increased (0.18 [−0.15 to 0.50]) during humid STHA. Conclusion: STHA induced divergent adaptations between dry and humid conditions, but did not result in differences in temperate endurance performance.

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Mostafa Zarei, Hamed Abbasi, Abdolhamid Daneshjoo, Mehdi Gheitasi, Kamran Johari, Oliver Faude, Nikki Rommers and Roland Rössler

Purpose: The “11+ Kids” injury-prevention program has been shown to reduce injuries and related costs in youth football players less than 14 y of age. A major argument to convince coaches to use this exercise-based injury-prevention program is a potential performance enhancement of the players. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the “11+ Kids” program on isokinetic strength. Methods: Two teams were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. The intervention group replaced their warm-up by the “11+ Kids” and the control group warmed up as usual. Two days before and after the 10-wk intervention, isokinetic strength of the hip adductors and abductors, knee flexors and extensors, and ankle invertors and evertors was tested. Results: Thirty-one players (mean age 11.5 [0.8] y) completed the study. The intervention group showed large improvements in all isokinetic strength measures (P < .001 for all measures; Cohen d = 0.8–1.4), whereas the control group only showed negligible to medium positive effects (P values ranging from .006 to .718; Cohen d = −0.1 to 0.7). The intervention was beneficial compared with the control group regarding isokinetic strength of the hip adductors (P < .001), knee flexors (P = .002), and ankle evertors (P < .001) and invertors (P = .005). Conclusions: Given the relatively short intervention period of 10 wk, the observed improvements relate to a practically meaningful effect of the intervention. The gain in strength may improve players’ performance and may contribute to a reduction of injury risk in the long-term application.

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Helmi Chaabene, Yassine Negra, Jason Moran, Olaf Prieske, Senda Sammoud, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo and Urs Granacher

Purpose: This study examined the effects of an 8-week Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) training on components of physical performance in young female handball players. Methods: Participants were allocated to an experimental group (EG; n = 10; age: 15.9 [0.2] y) and a control group (CG; n = 9; age: 15.9 [0.3] y). The EG performed NHE (2–3 sessions/wk) in replacement of some handball-specific drills, whereas the CG followed regular handball training. Pretraining and posttraining tests were carried out for the assessment of sprint speed (5 m, 10 m, and 20 m), jump performance (countermovement jump [CMJ] height), change-of-direction (t test), and repeated-sprint ability (RSA total time [RSAtotal], RSA best time [RSAbest], and RSA fatigue index [RSAFI]). Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. Results: Within-group analyses for the EG showed moderate performance improvements for 5, 10, and 20 m (effect size [ES] = 0.68–0.82), t test (ES = 0.74), and CMJ (ES = 0.85). Trivial to small improvements were observed for RSA (ES = −0.06 to 0.35). For the CG, within-group outcomes showed performance decrements with moderate (t test [ES = 0.71]), small (5 m [ES = 0.46] and RSAbest [ES = 0.20]), and trivial magnitude (10 m [ES = 0.10], 20 m [ES = 0.16], and RSAtotal [ES = 0.00]). Furthermore, trivial to small performance improvements were found for CMJ (ES = 0.10) and RSAFI (ES = 0.5). Between-group analyses revealed small to large effects in favor of EG for 5 m (ES = 1.07), 10 m (ES = 0.66), 20 m (ES = 0.53), t test (ES = 1.38), and RSA (ES = 0.68–0.78). A trivial between-group difference was demonstrated for CMJ (ES = −0.01). Conclusions: The NHE training intervention, in replacement of some handball-specific drills, was more effective than regular handball training in improving physical performance (ie, linear sprint time, jumping, change-of-direction, and RSA) in young female handball players.

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Ben M. Krings, Brandon D. Shepherd, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. McAllister and JohnEric W. Smith

Carbohydrate mouth rinsing has been shown to enhance aerobic exercise performance, but there is limited research with resistance exercise (RE). Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of carbohydrate mouth rinsing during a high-volume upper body RE protocol on performance, heart rate responses, ratings of perceived exertion, and felt arousal. Recreationally experienced resistance-trained males (N = 17, age: 21 ± 1 years, height: 177.3 ± 5.2 cm, mass: 83.5 ± 9.3 kg) completed three experimental sessions, with the first serving as familiarization to the RE protocol. During the final two trials, the participants rinsed a 25-ml solution containing either a 6% carbohydrate solution or an artificially flavored placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blinded fashion. The participants rinsed a total of nine times immediately before beginning the protocol and 20 s before repetitions to failure with the exercises bench press, bent-over row, incline bench press, close-grip row, hammer curls, skull crushers (all completed at 70% one-repetition maximum), push-ups, and pull-ups. Heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and felt arousal were measured at the baseline and immediately after each set of repetitions to failure. There were no differences for the total repetitions completed (carbohydrate = 203 ± 25 repetitions vs. placebo = 201 ± 23 repetitions, p = .46, Cohen’s d = 0.10). No treatment differences were observed for heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, or felt arousal (p > .05). Although carbohydrate mouth rinsing has been shown to be effective in increasing aerobic performance, the results from this investigation show no benefit in RE performance in resistance-trained males.

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Peter A. van de Hoef, Jur J. Brauers, Maarten van Smeden, Frank J.G. Backx and Michel S. Brink

Background: Plyometric training is a specific form of strength training that is used to improve the physical performance of athletes. An overview of the effects of plyometric training on soccer-specific outcomes in adult male soccer players is not available yet. Purpose: To systematically review and meta-analyze the effects of plyometric training on soccer-specific outcome measures in adult male soccer players and to identify which programs are most effective. Methods: PubMed, Embase/Medline, Cochrane, PEDro, and Scopus were searched. Extensive quality and risk of bias assessments were performed using the Cochrane ROBINS 2.0 for randomized trials. A random effects meta-analysis was performed using Cochrane Review Manager 5.3. Results: Seventeen randomized trials were included in the meta-analysis. The impact of plyometric training on strength, jump height, sprint speed, agility, and endurance was assessed. Only jump height, 20-m sprint speed, and endurance were significantly improved by plyometric training in soccer players. Results of the risk of bias assessment of the included studies resulted in overall scores of some concerns for risk of bias and high risk of bias. Conclusion: This review and meta-analysis showed that plyometric training improved jump height, 20-m sprint speed, and endurance, but not strength, sprint speed over other distances, or agility in male adult soccer players. However, the low quality of the included studies and substantial heterogeneity means that results need to be interpreted with caution. Future high-quality research should indicate whether or not plyometric training can be used to improve soccer-specific outcomes and thereby enhance performance.

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Nathan Philip Hilton, Nicholas Keith Leach, Melissa May Craig, S. Andy Sparks and Lars Robert McNaughton

Enteric-formulated capsules can mitigate gastrointestinal (GI) side effects following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion; however, it remains unclear how encapsulation alters postingestion symptoms and acid–base balance. The current study aimed to identify the optimal ingestion form to mitigate GI distress following NaHCO3 ingestion. Trained males (n = 14) ingested 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO3 in gelatin (GEL), delayed-release (DEL), and enteric-coated (ENT) capsules or a placebo in a randomized cross-over design. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration, potential hydrogen, and GI symptoms were measured pre- and postingestion for 3 hr. Fewer GI symptoms were reported with ENT NaHCO3 than with GEL (p = .012), but not with DEL (p = .106) in the postingestion phase. Symptom severity decreased with DEL (4.6 ± 2.8 arbitrary units) compared with GEL (7.0 ± 2.6 arbitrary units; p = .001) and was lower with ENT (2.8 ± 1.9 arbitrary units) compared with both GEL (p < .0005) and DEL (p = .044) NaHCO3. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration increased in all NaHCO3 conditions compared with the placebo (p < .0005), although this was lower with ENT than with GEL (p = .001) and DEL (p < .0005) NaHCO3. Changes in blood potential hydrogen were reduced with ENT compared with GEL (p = .047) and DEL (p = .047) NaHCO3, with no other differences between the conditions. Ingestion of ENT NaHCO3 attenuates GI disturbances for up to 3 hr postingestion. Therefore, ENT ingestion forms may be favorable for those who report GI disturbances with NaHCO3 supplementation or for those who have previously been deterred from its use altogether.

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Joseph Peters, Ian Rice and Tyson Bull

This pilot study investigated the relationship between personal and wheelchair factors on skin pressures at the ischial tuberosity in wheelchair basketball players. Seventeen wheelchair basketball players (7 male and 10 female) were evaluated during static and dynamic propulsive conditions while peak pressure index and peak pressure gradient were recorded with an interface pressure mat. The results showed that greater seat dump angles and backrest heights were negatively associated with the peak pressure index. Therapeutic cushion use was moderately associated with a reduced peak pressure gradient. Higher-class players used chair configurations associated with augmented pressure; however, classification status alone was not associated with pressure magnitude. Body mass index was negatively correlated with the static peak pressure gradient at levels approaching significance (p < .10). In conclusion, greater seat dump angles and backrest heights may provide pressure relief, whereas greater body mass index and therapeutic cushion use may reduce pressure gradients.