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Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara
Purpose: This study assessed students’ levels and associations between recess enjoyment, positive affect, environmental factors, and activity preferences overall and as a function of gender and developmental level. Methods: An online survey was used to gather data from 464 students in Grades 4–8 from nine elementary schools in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Results: When the variance explained by gender and developmental level was controlled for in this study, both recess environment and activity preferences accounted for a significant portion of the variability related to affect and enjoyment of recess. Having equipment and space and preference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, organizing and playing games, and free time predicted both affect and enjoyment. Conclusion: These and other findings enable educators to progress in understanding how they might adjust approaches to recess to facilitate more enjoyment and positive affect in elementary school students especially by gender and developmental level.
Melanie S. Hill, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Larry J. Nelson and Alexander C. Jensen
Some older adults may not receive social connection due to social withdrawal, potentially resulting in loneliness. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between social withdrawal and loneliness, in the context of sports participation. The authors hypothesized that individuals who are more shy and avoidant would be more lonely than those who are less shy and avoidant, and that those who are unsocial would not necessarily be more lonely. The authors also hypothesized individual sport participation would further exacerbate loneliness over group sport participation. Results from participants in the Huntsman Senior Games (n = 374) indicated that as shyness, avoidance, and unsociability increased, loneliness increased as well. Furthermore, shy athletes in group sports reported higher levels of loneliness than those in individual sports. Although the authors seek to prevent individuals from being lonely in later life, there may be instances where removing oneself from a group is beneficial for mental health.
Brendan T. O’Keeffe, Alan E. Donnelly and Ciaran MacDonncha
Purpose: To examine the test–retest reliability of student-administered (SA) health-related fitness tests in school settings and to compare indices of reliability with those taken by trained research-assistants. Methods: Participants (n = 86; age: 13.43 [0.33] y) were divided into 2 groups, SA (n = 45, girls = 26) or research-assistant administered (RA; n = 41, girls = 21). The SA group had their measures taken by 8 students (age: 15.59 [0.56] y, girls = 4), and the RA group had their measures taken by 8 research-assistants (age: 21.21 [1.38], girls = 5). Tests were administered twice by both groups, 1 week apart. Tests included body mass index, handgrip strength, standing broad jump, isometric plank hold, 90° push-up, 4 × 10-m shuttle run, back-saver sit and reach, and blood pressure. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficients for SA (≥.797) and RA (≥.866) groups were high, and the observed systematic error (Bland–Altman plot) between test 1 and test 2 was close to 0 for all tests. The coefficient of variation was less than 10% for all tests in the SA group, aside from the 90° push-up (24.3%). The SA group had a marginally lower combined mean coefficient of variation across all tests (6.5%) in comparison with the RA group (6.8%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that, following familiarization training, SA health-related fitness tests in school-based physical education programs can be considered reliable.
Integrating the Student-Athlete Climate Study conceptual framework with critical race and intersectionality theories, I examine racial differences in the perceived effects of college on life skill development among college sportswomen. I use nationally representative data from the NCAA’s 2006 Growth, Opportunity, Aspirations, and Learning of Students in College (GOALS) survey to examine whether team and/or campus climate mediate racial differences. I find small, but statistically significant differences whereby sportswomen of color report less positive effects of college on leadership, teamwork, time management, and work ethic compared to white sportswomen, but more positive effects of college on their understanding of people of other races. Campus climate, but not team climate, partially mediates racial differences in the perceived effects of college on leadership, teamwork, time management, and work ethic.
Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk
This study compared salivary and serum concentrations of testosterone and cortisol at rest and in response to intense multitask exercise in boys and men. Early morning saliva and venous blood samples were obtained before and 15 minutes after exercise from 30 competitive swimmers (15 boys, age 14.3 [1.9] y; 15 men, age 21.7 [3.1] y). Exercise included a swim-bench maximal strength task and an all-out 200-m swim, followed by a high-intensity interval swimming protocol (5 × 100 m, 5 × 50 m, and 5 × 25 m). At baseline, fasting testosterone (but not cortisol) concentration was higher in men than boys in serum and saliva (P < .05). Salivary and serum cortisol increased postexercise, with a greater increase in men compared with boys (men: 226% and 242%; boys: 78% and 64%, respectively; group by time interaction, P < .05). Testosterone was reduced postexercise in serum but not in saliva (men: −14.7% and 0.1%; boys: −33.9% and −4.5%, respectively, fluid by time interaction, P < .01). Serum and salivary cortisol (but not testosterone), preexercise and postexercise values were strongly correlated in both men and boys (r = .79 and .82, respectively; P < .01). In summary, early morning high-intensity exercise results in a decrease in testosterone in serum, but not saliva, and an increase in cortisol irrespective of the fluid used, in both boys and men. When examining immediate postexercise changes, the lack of correlation in testosterone between saliva and serum suggests that saliva may not be an appropriate fluid to examine changes in testosterone. The high correlation observed between serum and saliva for cortisol indicates that, in both boys and men, saliva may be used to monitor the immediate cortisol response to exercise.
Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler and Naiman A. Khan
Purpose: To address the obesity epidemic and promote children’s health; several health organizations recommend that schools develop comprehensive programs designed to promote physical activity and health behavior. Given a lack of empirical investigation, the authors sought to understand how physical education programs are perceived within such initiatives. Methods: A case study was conducted to acquire insights of key stakeholders (N = 67) in a school nationally recognized for promoting physical activity and health. Data were collected using formal interviews, informal interviews, observations, and document analysis. Data were analyzed utilizing grounded theory and constant comparison. Results: Physical education was viewed positively by stakeholders; however, physical educators felt marginalized within the school infrastructure. Systemic barriers to program quality included lack of leadership, feelings of marginalization, and insufficient funding and collaboration. Discussion: Findings raise concerns about the difficulty of sustaining a high-quality physical education program even in a school recognized for significant support of physical activity.
Constancio R. Arnaldo
Adele Pavlidis, Millicent Kennelly and Laura Rodriguez Castro
In this article we analyze images of sportswomen from four media outlets over the course of the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games in Australia. Through visual discourse analysis we find that despite structural changes to increase gender equality at the Commonwealth Games—which for the first time ensured equal opportunities for men and women to win medals—sportswomen were still depicted in a very narrow way, and intersectional representations were mainly excluded. Though the quantity of images of women had increased, the ‘quality’ of these images was poor in terms of representing sportswomen in their diversity. We still have far to go if we are to embrace women in their multiplicity—and to recognize that women can be strong, capable, butch, femme, and varied in their range of expressions of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity.
Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine if the Digi-Walker SW-200 (SW-200), New Lifestyles NL-2000 (NL-2000), and Omron HJ-303 (HJ-303) yield similar daily step counts compared to the StepWatch-3; and (2) to determine if pedometer error is influenced by adiposity and/or stepping rate in African American women. Methods: 60 participants (28.0 ± 9.8 y) wore the devices for three weekdays. ANOVAs were performed to determine if body mass index (BMI) and device were related to steps per day, and to determine if BMI and device were related to error. Stepwise linear regressions were performed to determine which variables contributed to pedometer error. Results: StepWatch-3 counted significantly more steps than all other devices within each BMI category (p < .01). The NL-2000 had significantly less error in the normal (−13.4%) and overweight (−14.9%) groups compared to the SW-200 (−26.2% and −33.3%) and HJ-303 (−32.5% ad −31.5%) (p < .05). The SW-200 had significantly more error in the obese group (−50.7%) compared to the NL-2000 (−17.1%) and HJ-303 (−26.0%) (p < .05). NL-2000 error was not related to any variables while the SW-200 error was related to waist circumference (WC) and the HJ-303 error was related to percentage of slow steps. Conclusion: In African American women adiposity is more strongly related to more pedometer error in a device using a spring-levered mechanism (SW-200). Accumulating steps at a slow rate is related to more pedometer error when using a device with a step filter (HJ-303).