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Yann Le Mansec, Jérôme Perez, Quentin Rouault, Julie Doron and Marc Jubeau

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on badminton performance during a smash stroke. Methods: In total, 17 young, well-trained players completed 20 forehand smashes twice (prefatigue and postfatigue protocol), and both speed and precision of the strokes were measured. The fatigue protocol consisted of 10 series of 10 maximal countermovement jumps (3-s rest in between) followed by 8 lunges. Perception of effort and countermovement-jump performance during each series were also measured to assess fatigue. Results: Shuttlecock speed decreased moderately (−3.3%) but significantly after the fatigue protocol (P < .001, ηp2=.671). Precision significantly decreased after the fatigue protocol (−10.3%, P = .001, ηp2=.473). The decrease in precision was mainly due to an increased number of faults (P = .006, ηp2=.378, d z = 0.756) and to a decrease in accuracy (P = .066, ηp2=.195, d z = 0.478). Conclusion: The present study showed that fatigue impairs performance during specific badminton skills. Moreover, by showing a slight decrease in speed and a large decrease in accuracy of the shuttlecock when fatigue is experienced, the present study suggested that, as previously observed in other racket sports, the speed of the missile appears to be the key factor used by the players to win the rally. Coaches and physical trainers should therefore develop interventions aiming to limit the negative impact of fatigue on badminton strokes.

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Rebekka Pomiersky, Bastian Abel, Christian Werner, André Lacroix, Klaus Pfeiffer, Martina Schäufele and Klaus Hauer

This study investigated the effectivity and sustainability of a physical activity (PA) promotion and motor training programs and analyzed predictors for PA changes in persons with dementia. A total of 122 participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were randomized to the intervention program designed for persons with dementia (intervention group) or a motor placebo activity (control group). The primary outcome was the Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Elderly assessed at the baseline, after the 3-month intervention, and at a 3-month follow-up. The PA promotion program significantly increased PA in the intervention group compared with the control group during the training intervention phase. Both groups showed an increase in habitual PA when intervention-induced activities were excluded. PA was sustainably increased in both groups at follow-up. Low baseline PA was predictive for increased PA after the intervention and low baseline PA, high motor performance, and low comorbidity for increased PA at follow-up.

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Carolina F. Wilke, Samuel P. Wanner, Weslley H.M. Santos, Eduardo M. Penna, Guilherme P. Ramos, Fabio Y. Nakamura and Rob Duffield

Purpose: To determine whether daily perceived recovery is explained from a multifactorial single-session classification of recovery (ie, faster vs slower) or other circumstantial factors (ie, previous training load, self-reported sleep, or phase of the microcycle). Methods: Nineteen elite male futsal players were initially allocated to a recovery-classification group (faster recovery, slower physiological, or slower perceptual) based on previous research using a multifactorial cluster-analysis technique. During 4 ensuing weeks of preseason, training loads were monitored via player load, training impulse, and session rating of perceived exertion. Before each day’s training, players reported their perception of recovery (Total Quality of Recovery scale [TQR]) and the number of hours and perceived quality of sleep the night prior. A hierarchical linear mixed model was used to analyze the effect of the different recovery profiles, training load, sleep, and phase of the microcycle (ie, start, middle, end) on daily TQR. Results: The recovery classification of players (P = .20), training load (training impulse, P = .32; player load, P = .23; session rating of perceived exertion, P = .46), and self-reported hours slept the night before (P = .45) did not significantly influence TQR. However, perceived sleep quality (P < .01) and phase of the microcycle (P < .01) were significantly associated with TQR (r 2 = .41). Conclusions: Neither recovery classification nor prior training load influenced perceived recovery during the preseason. However, higher TQR was evident with better self-reported sleep quality, whereas lower values were associated with phases of the training week.

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

Intensive training periods may negatively influence immune function, but the immunological consequences of specific high-intensity-training (HIT) prescriptions are not well defined. Purpose: To explore whether 3 different HIT prescriptions influence multiple health-related biomarkers and whether biomarker responses to HIT were associated with upper-respiratory-illness (URI) risk. Methods: Twenty-five male cyclists and triathletes were randomized to 3 HIT groups and completed 12 HIT sessions over 4 wk. Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) was determined using an incremental cycling protocol, while resting serum biomarkers (cortisol, testosterone, 25[OH]D, and ferritin), salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA), and energy availability (EA) were assessed before and after the training intervention. Participants self-reported upper-respiratory symptoms during the intervention, and episodes of URI were identified retrospectively. Results: Fourteen athletes reported URIs, but there were no differences in incidence, duration, or severity between groups. Increased risk of URI was associated with higher s-IgA secretion rates (odds ratio = 0.90, 90% confidence interval 0.83–0.97). Lower preintervention cortisol and higher EA predicted a 4% increase in URI duration. Participants with higher V˙O2peak reported higher total symptom scores (incidence rate ratio = 1.07, 90% confidence interval 1.01–1.13). Conclusions: Although multiple biomarkers were weakly associated with risk of URI, the direction of associations between s-IgA, cortisol, EA, and URI risk were inverse to previous observations and physiological rationale. There was a cluster of URIs in the first week of the training intervention, but no samples were collected at this time point. Future studies should incorporate more-frequent sample time points, especially around the onset of new training regimens, and include athletes with suspected or known nutritional deficiencies.

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Laura Prior and Matthew Curtner-Smith

Purpose: Most research examining the effects of socialization on physical education teachers’ curricula is dated, has been incidental, and conducted in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of occupational socialization on the curricula delivered by elementary teachers. Methods: Participants were 10 teachers. Data were collected with six qualitative techniques and analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Findings and Discussion: Three groups of teachers were identified. These were nonteachers, conservatives, and progressives. The curricula they delivered varied greatly in terms of pedagogies and quality. Each teacher group was closely aligned to orientations for teaching and coaching, and these orientations were forged by the teachers’ socialization profiles. Conclusions: The findings provided clues as to how the cycle of poor and nonteaching might be broken in U.S. elementary schools. In addition, these findings served to potentially modify occupational socialization theory pertaining to physical education.

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Carlos Capella-Peris, Jesús Gil-Gómez and Òscar Chiva-Bartoll

Purpose: To compare the development of teaching competency in preservice teachers of physical education (n = 96) through two different modalities of intervention from the same service-learning program. The preservice teachers provided a direct service to children with motor functional diversity, promoting their motor skills and counteracting their lack of social attention. Method: The topic was approached using mixed methods with methodological triangulation. Quantitative evidence was gathered through a quasi-experimental design of two nonequivalent experimental groups implementing the following instrument: the Teaching Competency while performing Motor Skills and Body Language Games Rubric. Meanwhile, qualitative analysis was undertaken by elaborating upon 12 life histories of multiple crossed stories. Results: The quantitative results provided significant evidence regarding the academic effect of service-learning on preservice teachers, while the qualitative interpretation complemented this view, reflecting on how this learning was developed. Discussion/Conclusion: The authors provided the original findings of the service-learning effects on the teaching competency of preservice teachers as well as the promotion of additional academic and social learning.

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Grace C. Bellinger, Kristen A. Pickett and Andrea H. Mason

Reaching and grasping are often completed while walking, yet the interlimb coordination required for such a combined task is not fully understood. Previous studies have produced contradictory evidence regarding preference for support of the lower limb ipsilateral or contralateral to the upper limb when performing a reaching task. This coordinative aspect of the combined task provides insight into whether the two tasks are mutually modified or if the reach is superimposed upon normal arm swinging. Collectively, 18 right-handed young adults walked slower, took shorter steps, and spent more time in double support during the combined task compared with walking alone. The peak grasp aperture was larger in walking reach-to-grasp trials compared with standing trials. There was not a strong trend for lower limb support preferences at the reach initiation or object contact. The participants could begin walking with either foot and demonstrated variability of preferred gait initiation patterns. There was a range of interlimb coordination patterns, none of which could be generalized to all young adults. The variability with which healthy right-handed young adults execute a combined walking reach-to-grasp task suggests that the cyclical (walking) and discrete (prehension) motor tasks may have separate motor control mechanisms, as proposed in the two primitives theory.

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International Sport Coaching Journal


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Aliza K. Nedimyer, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey and Erik A. Wikstrom

Our objective was to quantify the functional and morphological characteristics of the plantar intrinsic muscles in those with and without a history of exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP). Thirty-two active runners—24 with a history of ERLLP—volunteered. Strength of the flexor hallucis brevis and flexor digitorum brevis, postural control, and navicular drop were recorded. Morphology of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles were captured using ultrasonography. Those with ERLLP had smaller flexor hallucis brevis morphology measures (p ≤ .015) and a greater reliance on visual information while balancing (p = .05). ERLLP appears to alter intrinsic muscle function and morphology.

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Mark S. Tremblay

Background: Emerging research shows that the composition of movement behaviors throughout the day (physical activities, sedentary behaviors, sleep) is related to indicators of health, suggesting previous research that isolated single movement behaviors maybe incomplete, misleading, and/or unnecessarily constrained. Methods: This brief report summarizes evidence to support a 24-hour movement behavior paradigm and efforts to date by a variety of jurisdictions to consult, develop, release, promote, and study 24-hour movement guidelines. It also introduces and summarizes the accompanying series of articles related specifically to 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years. Results: Using robust and transparent processes, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the World Health Organization have developed and released 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Other countries are exploring a similar approach and related research is expanding rapidly. Articles related to guideline development in South Africa, the United Kingdom, Australia, and by the World Health Organization are a part of this special series. Conclusions: A new paradigm employing 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years that combines recommendations for movement behaviors across the whole day is gaining momentum across the globe.