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Sungwook Son, Antonio S. Williams and Yoon Heo
Anna Lee, Tanvi Bhatt, Xuan Liu, Yiru Wang, Shuaijie Wang and Yi-Chung (Clive) Pai
The purpose was to examine and compare the longer-term generalization between 2 different practice dosages for a single-session treadmill slip-perturbation training when reexposed to an overground slip 6 months later. A total of 45 older adults were conveniently assigned to either 24 or 40 slip-like treadmill perturbation trials or a third control group. Overground slips were given immediately after initial training, and at 6 months after initial training in order to examine immediate and longer-term effects. The performance (center of mass stability and vertical limb support) and fall percentage from the laboratory-induced overground slips (at initial posttraining and at 6 mo) were measured and compared between groups. Both treadmill slip-perturbation groups showed immediate generalization at the initial posttraining test and longer-term generalization at the 6-month retest. The higher-practice-dosage group performed significantly better than the control group (P < .05), with no difference between the lower-practice-dosage and the control groups at the 6-month retest (P > .05). A single session of treadmill slip-perturbation training showed a positive effect for reducing older adults’ fall risk for laboratory-induced overground slips. A higher-practice dosage of treadmill slip perturbations could be more beneficial for further reducing fall risk.
Pınar Öztürk and Canan Koca
This research aims to explore the gender–power relations and gendered experiences of the players in a women’s football team in Turkey. An ethnographic method and a feminist perspective were used to allow a deeper understanding of their experiences. Based on participant observation and interviews conducted with 14 players, three coaches, and one staff member, the data were analyzed via thematic analysis. The identified themes are (a) institutionalized gender discrimination and (b) compulsory femininity: being ladylike. The findings indicate that unequal gender relations in the club, influenced by institutionalized gender discrimination, determine the position of the women’s team within the club. Accordingly, compulsory femininity is continuously generated in the field. Consequently, the women’s football team remained at the periphery (and finally outside) of the men’s club.
Seong-won Han, Andrew Sawatsky, Azim Jinha and Walter Herzog
Vastus medialis (VM) weakness is thought to alter patellar tracking, thereby changing the loading of the patellofemoral joint (PFJ), resulting in patellofemoral pain. However, it is challenging to measure VM force and weakness in human studies, nor is it possible to measure the associated mechanical changes in the PFJ. To obtain fundamental insight into VM weakness and its effects on PFJ mechanics, the authors determined PFJ loading in the presence of experimentally simulated VM weakness. Skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits were used (n = 6), and the vastus lateralis, VM, and rectus femoris were stimulated individually through 3 custom-built nerve cuff electrodes. Muscle torque and PFJ pressure distribution were measured while activating all muscles simultaneously, or when the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris were activated, while VM was not, to simulate a quadriceps muscle strength imbalance. For a given muscular joint torque, peak pressures were greater and joint contact areas were smaller when simulating VM weakness compared with the condition where all muscles were activated simultaneously. The results in the rabbit model support that VM weakness results in altered PFJ loading, which may cause patellofemoral pain, often associated with a strength imbalance of the knee extensor muscle group.
Diane Benish, Jody Langdon and Brian Culp
As part of a coach’s informal learning process, previous athletic experience is a foundational element of an athlete’s future coaching career, determining the perspectives, beliefs, and behaviors the coach will use in their interactions with athletes. Although it is investigated more generally, previous athletic experience is rarely considered in understanding specific coaching behaviors related to supporting athletes’ needs and motivation. This study investigated 15 novice coaches’ personal athletic and coaching experiences to determine how these experiences influenced their own coaching practice with regard to the engagement in autonomy-supportive and/or controlling behaviors. The interview data revealed that novice coaches used their past experiences to inform their practice in the following three ways: (a) experienced controlling behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more autonomy supportive in coaching; (b) experienced controlling behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more controlling in coaching; and (c) experienced autonomy-supportive behaviors as an athlete, which transferred to a desire to be more autonomy supportive in coaching. These results suggest the importance of considering previous athletic experience as an antecedent to coaches’ engagement in autonomy-supportive behaviors.
Luciana De Martin Silva and John W. Francis
The aim of this study was twofold; first, to explore the challenges and successes faced by deaf international futsal players when using a collaborative blended learning approach in preparation for a major competition, and second, to provide a discussion of key coaching lessons learned to inspire coaches to consider how to best develop their coaching knowledge and practices. Data were collected from 12 players via six semistructured focus groups, along with 36 reflective diaries maintained by the two researchers (who held the role of “Joint Head Coach” and “Performance Analyst”), using a critical participatory action research methodological approach. Data collection and analysis were an on-going and cyclical process during the 7-month study. Four key themes were identified: “a little journey: a connected approach to learning”; “ownership, collaboration, and connection”; “communication barriers and fear of misinterpretation”; and “players’ initial ‘buy-in’ to the constructivist approach to learning.” Key coaching lessons highlighted the need for a “flexible” and “connected” approach to learning. In this study, through learning in-action and on-action, the authors often found themselves as “social” managers in trying to explore interrelational complexities and support individuals to build trust, an aspect seen by players as crucial for actively developing collaborative blended learning within the group.
Elsa Kristiansen, Therese Dille and Simon Tærud Day
This commentary uses the Norwegian Football Association’s COVID-19 crisis communication strategy as an example of how federations can take an active role and use their influence to guide and be proactive in the opening of a society after a lockdown. By paying close attention to the public debate and by interviewing the federation’s communication director, the authors outlined the four phases of the strategic crisis communication—and the consequences of them in Norway. While the first consequence was the postponing of the Euro Qualifier against Serbia on March 26 for the European Championship this summer, the lockdown changed the focus quickly, and the strategy became about getting all players back on the football fields. The authors elaborated on how a major federation can (and maybe should) take a leading role by using its “voice” in the media and public and expertise to aid reopening a society after lockdown.
Bryan A. McCullick, Ashton Dooley, Paul Schempp and Tiffany Isaac
The Coaching Model theorized that coaching consists of three primary components: (a) training, (b) competition, and (c) organization. Unfortunately, researchers’ attention to the organization component has been scant compared with the keen focus given to training and competition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the organizational: (a) structure and (b) roles and responsibilities of an elite-level basketball coaching staff. The study employed a case study approach, utilizing interviews, observations, and artifacts as data sources. Data analysis identified the organizational structure as bureaucratic, or functional, in nature as (a) there was a clear chain of command, (b) roles and responsibilities were assigned based on staff member expertise, and (c) staff members had similar skill sets that allowed for easy communication and role overlap. Organizational roles were “Delegator,” “Recruiter,” and “Promoter.” Results provide insights into the manifestation of the organizational component among a staff, an exemplar of a staff managing the complexity of coaching, and support for the contention that coaching involves more than being the traditional teacher/psychologist.
William Roth Smith
The cancellations and postponements of large-scale organized sport competitions provided the first indicators of the impact that COVID-19 would have on society. During the pandemic, sport media reporting has focused on cancellations. Although not receiving as much media attention, “lifestyle sports,” such as rock climbing, parkour, BMX, kayaking, or skateboarding, were also impacted by COVID-19 in ways that differ from organized team sports. In this commentary, the author draws upon select media reports and subcultural social media posts to highlight two primary impacts of COVID-19: (a) the civic organizational challenges of limiting lifestyle sport participation and (b) the influence on the social and risk-laden experience of these sports. The article concludes by detailing lifestyle sport stakeholder communication, digital sporting communities, the use of social media for organizing lifestyle sport communities, and sport risk communication as fruitful avenues for future research in a postpandemic lifestyle sports.