Physical activity (PA) and social support have known benefits for the well-being and health of older adults, and social support is associated with PA behavior and positive affective experiences in PA contexts. The aim of this study was to synthesize qualitative research conducted on the experiences of social support related to PA among older adults (age ≥55 years). Following meta-study methodology, the authors searched nine databases and extracted information from 31 studies. Results were synthesized in terms of common themes and in light of theoretical and methodological perspectives used. The qualitative literature identifies supportive behaviors and social network outcomes which may be useful for informing how best to support older adults to be physically active. This literature rarely reflected the experiences of vulnerable populations, and future research should aim to further understand supportive behaviors which enable older adults to overcome barriers and challenges to being physically active.
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L. Jayne Beselt, Michelle C. Patterson, Meghan H. McDonough, Jennifer Hewson and Scott MacKay
Katherine Holland and Justin A. Haegele
The purpose of this article is to review qualitative inquiries examining the perspectives of students with disabilities toward physical education (PE) published from 2014 to 2019, as an update to the 2015 review by Haegele and Sutherland. Keyword searches were used to identify articles from nine electronic databases, and seven articles met all inclusion criteria. The seven selected articles were subjected to a narrative analysis, and three thematic clusters emerged: (a) an “inconvenience”: the PE teacher’s influence on quality of experience, (b) “we play together and I like it”: friendships central to the quality of PE experience, and (c) “no lift access to the gym”: barriers to successful participation. Findings from this review support the notion that students with disabilities may have positive experiences in PE if they are offered appropriate modifications and accommodations and are provided with increased kind and supportive interactions with staff and peers.
Existing tools measuring athletes’ psychological strategies have various practical limitations including (a) not capturing the perceived effectiveness of psychological strategies in pursuing desirable outcomes; (b) overlooking stages of competitive involvement, such as before training or the night before competition; (c) and being predominantly paper-based. In the present case study, the author explains the process of developing an alternative assessment tool called the Profile of Psychological Strategies (ProPS). This new profile aims to measure athletes’ perceptions of which strategies they use, to pursue which desirable outcomes, and how effectively. The ProPS has its theoretical roots in Fletcher and Sarkar’s approach to developing psychological resilience and was developed based on an adapted version of Radhakrishna’s Sequence for Instrument Development. This case study can be useful both for sport experts looking for a practical and flexible way to measure athletes’ psychological strategies and for those aiming to develop their own applied assessment tool.