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Emmanuel Chiebuka Okoye, Christopher Olusanjo Akosile, Fatai Adesina Maruf, Ifeoma Uchenna Onwuakagba and Victoria Chinonye Chukwuma

Objectives: To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) into Igbo culture. Methods: The English version of the PASE (E-PASE) was translated into Igbo, harmonized, back-translated, subjected to expert panel review, and pretested. The final Igbo version of PASE (I-PASE), the E-PASE, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were then administered to consecutively recruited 109 consenting Igbo older adults. Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman rank-order correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha at .05 level of significance. Results: All items on the E-PASE were retained on the I-PASE but some modifications were made. The I-PASE had poor internal consistency coefficient (α = .66), poor-to-excellent item, and total score known-group validity (ρ = .24–1.00) and moderate convergent validity (ρ = .50). Conclusion: The I-PASE is a valid, reliable, and culturally specific tool for assessing PA among Igbo older adults.

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Asim Smailagic, Andreas Ihle, Adilson Marques, Bruna R. Gouveia, Mónica Cameirão, Honorato Sousa, Matthias Kliegel and Daniel Siewiorek

Background and Objectives: Regular physical exercise can attenuate age-related cognitive decline. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a physical exercise multicomponent training based on exergames on cognitive functioning (CF) in older adults. Research Design and Methods: This randomized controlled trial included older adults aged 61–78. Participants were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n = 15) or active control group (CG; n = 16). The IG was exposed to a combined training with traditional exercise and exergaming, twice a week over a period of 12 weeks. The CG performed only traditional sessions. CF was assessed by the Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument. The time points for assessment were at zero (pretest), 12 (posttest), and 17 weeks (follow-up). Results: Active CG and IG increased from pretest to posttest in short-term memory (STM), long-term memory (LTM), and Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument total score 1.98 > Z < 3.00, ps < .005, with moderately large positive effects (.36 > r < .54). A significant increase was seen from posttest to follow-up in STM, Z = 2.74, p = .006, and LTM, Z = 2.31, p < .021, only in IG. Across the two time periods posttest to follow-up, there were significant interaction effects between program type and time for STM (p = .022, ηp2=.17) and LTM (p = .004, ηp2=.25), demonstrating a more beneficial effect of the exergames intervention compared to the CG. Discussion and Implications: The integration of exergaming in a multicomponent functional fitness exercise might have the potential to maintain and improve CF (in particular, STM and LTM) in older adults.

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Barbara Resnick, Marie Boltz, Elizabeth Galik, Steven Fix and Shijun Zhu

This study tested the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the MotionWatch 8 among assisted living residents with and without cognitive impairment. Data from the Dissemination and Implementation of Function Focused Care in Assisted Living Using the Evidence Integration Triangle study were used. The sample included 781 individuals from 85 facilities with a mean age of 89.48 (SD = 7.43) years. The majority were female (71%), White (97%), and overall (44%) had cognitive impairment. A total of 70% were willing to wear the MotionWatch 8. Reliability was supported as there was no difference in time spent in activity across three consecutive wear days. Validity was based on hypothesis testing, and function was associated with counts of activity at baseline (p = .001) and 4 months (p = .001). Those with cognitive impairment engaged in less physical activity (p = .04). The MotionWatch 8 is a useful option for measuring physical activity in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.

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Lucy V. Piggott and Jordan J.K. Matthews

Within this article, the authors explore the extent to which the administrative and governance hierarchies, rules, and processes of two English national governing bodies (NGBs) reproduce or resist gender segregation and male dominance within their leadership and governance. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theory of practice, the authors expand upon current literature to better understand the workings of gender power relations at the structural level of organizational practice. Semistructured interviews with male and female leaders were supplemented by an analysis of formal documents. The authors found that gender power relations privileging men were simultaneously conserved and resisted within the two NGBs. While resistance to male-dominated leadership and governance was evident, transformational organizational change was lacking. This highlighted the limitations of strategies being primarily driven through top-down, policy-based approaches. The authors end the article by emphasizing the importance of a combined approach at the structural, cultural, and individual levels to enable sustainable and transformational organizational change.

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Cristian Jaque, Phillip Véliz, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Jason Moran, Paulo Gentil and Jorge Cancino

The authors compared the effects of bodyweight resistance training at moderate- or high-speed conditions on muscle power, velocity of movement, and functional performance in older females. In a randomized, single-blinded noncontrolled trial, participants completed 12 weeks (three sessions/week) of bodyweight resistance training at high (n = 14; age = 70.6 ± 4.3 years) or moderate (n = 12; age = 72.8 ± 4.2 years) speeds. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance (Group × Time) with α level set at <.05. After the intervention, timed up and go test performance (p < .05) and the rising from a chair test mean (22.4%) and maximal velocity (28.5%), mean (24.4%) and maximal power (27.7%), normalized mean (25.1%), and normalized maximal power (28.5%) increased in the high-speed group (p < .05). However, the moderate-speed group achieved no improvements (Δ6.7–14.4%; p > .2). The authors conclude that high-speed bodyweight resistance training is an effective and economically practical strategy to improve the functional capacity of older women relevant to daily life activities.

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Motoko Taguchi, Akiko Hara, Hiroko Murata, Suguru Torii and Takayuki Sako

For athletes to gain body mass, especially muscle, an increase in energy consumption is necessary. To increase their energy intake, many athletes consume more meals, including supplementary meals or snacks. However, the influence of meal frequency on changes in body composition and appetite is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of meal frequency on changes in body composition and appetite during weight gain in athletes through a well-controlled dietary intervention. Ten male collegiate rowers with weight gain goals were included in this study. The subjects were randomly classified into two groups, and dietary intervention was implemented using a crossover method. During the intervention period, all subjects were provided identical meals aimed to provide a positive energy balance. The meals were consumed at a frequency of either three times (regular frequency) or six times (high frequency) a day. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the visual analog scale was used for the evaluation of appetite. In both trials, body weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass significantly increased; however, an interaction (Trial × Time) was not observed. Visual analog scale did not vary between trials. Our data suggest that partitioning identical excess dietary intakes over three or six meals does not influence changes in body composition or appetite during weight gain in athletes.

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Christine E. Wegner, Bradley J. Baker and Gareth J. Jones

Volunteers provide essential services to community sport organizations; thus, it is important to understand the underlying factors in successful volunteer–organization relationships. Organizational identification, an integral component of relationship building for members in an organization, is a useful yet underutilized concept to understand how and why volunteers create lasting, deep relationships with sport organizations. This research utilizes a sequential mixed-method design to examine the evolution of organizational identification among volunteers in a community sport organization. The survey results indicate that new volunteers formed their organizational identification over the course of a single program season, such that, by the end of the season, they were similar to returners. Subsequent qualitative analysis of focus group data indicated that the content and evolution of organizational identities varied for newcomers and returners. These results provide important contributions related to the ongoing nature of identity work of volunteers and offer practical implications for volunteer management within community sport organizations.

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Alice M. Wallett, Naroa Etxebarria, Nicole A. Beard, Philo U. Saunders, Marijke Welvaert, Julien D. Périard, Andrew J. McKune and David B. Pyne

Purpose: The risk of exercise-induced endotoxemia is increased in the heat and is primarily attributable to changes in gut permeability resulting in the translocation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the circulation. The purpose of this study was to quantify the acute changes in gut permeability and LPS translocation during submaximal continuous and high-intensity interval exercise under heat stress. Methods: A total of 12 well-trained male runners (age 37 [7] y, maximal oxygen uptake [VO2max] 61.0 [6.8] mL·min−1·kg−1) undertook 2 treadmill runs of 2 × 15-minutes at 60% and 75% VO2max and up to 8 × 1-minutes at 95% VO2max in HOT (34°C, 68% relative humidity) and COOL (18°C, 57% relative humidity) conditions. Venous blood samples were collected at the baseline, following each running intensity, and 1 hour postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for markers of intestinal permeability (LPS, LPS binding protein, and intestinal fatty acid–binding protein). Results: The increase in LPS binding protein following each exercise intensity in the HOT condition was 4% (5.3 μg·mL−1, 2.4–8.4; mean, 95% confidence interval, P < .001), 32% (4.6 μg·mL−1, 1.8–7.4; P = .002), and 30% (3.0 μg·mL−1, 0.03–5.9; P = .047) greater than in the COOL condition. LPS was 69% higher than baseline following running at 75% VO2max in the HOT condition (0.2 endotoxin units·mL−1, 0.1–0.4; P = .011). Intestinal fatty acid–binding protein increased 43% (2.1 ng·mL−1, 0.1–4.2; P = .04) 1 hour postexercise in HOT compared with the COOL condition. Conclusions: Small increases in LPS concentration during exercise in the heat and subsequent increases in intestinal fatty acid–binding protein and LPS binding protein indicate a capacity to tolerate acute, transient intestinal disturbance in well-trained endurance runners.

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Lucas Ugliara, James J. Tufano, Martim Bottaro and Amilton Vieira

Measuring ankle torque is of paramount importance. This study compared the test–retest reliability of the plantar flexion torque–generating capacity between older and younger men. Twenty-one older (68 ± 6 years) and 22 younger (25 ± 5 years) men were tested twice for maximal isometric plantar flexion. Peak torque (PT), rate of torque development, and contractile impulses (CI) were obtained from 0 to 50 ms (rate of torque development0–50; CI0–50) and from 100 to 200 ms (rate of torque development100–200; CI100–200). Typical error as the coefficient of variation (CVTE) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to assess test–retest reliability. Student’s t test was applied to investigate systematic errors. The CVTE ratio was used for between-group comparisons. Only PT demonstrated acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ .75 and CV ≤ 10%). Older men demonstrated greater CVTE than younger men for PT (ratio = 2.24), but lesser for rapid torque (ratio ≤ 0.84). Younger men demonstrated systematic error for PT (6.5%) and CI100–200 (−8.9%). In conclusion, older men demonstrated greater variability for maximal torque output, but lesser for rapid torque.