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Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Evan M. Forman, Mitesh Patel, Dave Williams, Fengqing Zhang, Ross D. Crosby and Meghan L. Butryn

Background: Despite interest in financial incentive programs, evidence regarding the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of deposit contracts (ie, use of participants’ own money as a financial reward) for increasing physical activity (PA) is limited. Furthermore, evidence regarding the use of feedback within incentive programs is limited. Purpose: To evaluate: (1) the feasibility and acceptability of deposit contracts for increasing objectively measured PA and (2) the effects of deposit contracts with or without ongoing feedback on PA. Methods: Participants (n = 24) were exposed to 3 conditions (1) self-monitoring, (2) incentive, and (3) incentive with feedback in an ABACABAC design, with the order of incentive conditions counterbalanced across participants. Results: Effect sizes suggest that individuals had a modest increase in PA during the incentive conditions compared with self-monitoring. Presentation order moderated results, such that individuals exposed to incentives with feedback first performed more poorly across both incentive conditions. In addition, individuals often cited the deposit contract as a reason for not enrolling, and those who did participate reported inadequate acceptability of the incentives and feedback. Conclusions: Results suggest that while deposit contracts may engender modest increases in PA, this type of incentive may not be feasible or acceptable for promoting PA.

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Catrine Tudor-Locke, John M. Schuna Jr, Damon L. Swift, Amber T. Dragg, Allison B. Davis, Corby K. Martin, William D. Johnson and Timothy S. Church

Background: Step-counting interventions with discrepant intensity emphases may elicit different effects. Methods: A total of 120 sedentary/low-active, postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to one of the following 3 groups: (1) 10,000 steps per day (with no emphasis on walking intensity/speed/cadence; basic intervention, 49 completers), (2) 10,000 steps per day and at least 30 minutes in moderate intensity (ie, at a cadence of at least 100 steps per minute; enhanced intervention, 47 completers), or (3) a control group (19 completers). NL-1000-determined steps and active minutes (a device-specific indicator of time at moderate+ intensity) were collected as process variables during the 12-week intervention. Outcome variables included systolic and diastolic blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, fasting blood glucose and insulin, flow-mediated dilation, gait speed, and ActiGraph GT3X+-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior. Results: The “basic group” increased 5173 to 9602 steps per day and 9.2 to 30.2 active minutes per day. The “enhanced group” similarly increased 5061 to 10,508 steps per day and 8.7 to 38.8 active minutes per day. The only significant change over time for clinical variables was body mass index. Conclusions: Interventions that use simple step-counters can achieve elevated volume and intensity of daily physical activity, regardless of emphasis on intensity. Despite this, few clinical outcomes were apparent in this sample of postmenopausal women with generally normal or controlled hypertension.

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Sean H. Kerr, Tiffanye M. Vargas, Mimi Nakajima and Jim Becker

The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine youth American football coaches and their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, sport concussions. Coaches (n = 103) were recruited from a randomized sample of Pop Warner leagues within a large Western state to complete the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey. Coaches ranged from 25–75 years of age and were coaching youth athletes ranging from 6–14 years of age. Coaches scored in the 80th percentile on concussion knowledge, and in the 85th percentile on concussion attitudes. However, coaches were lacking in some areas of concussion knowledge such as concussion symptomology. There was also a statistically significant positive correlation between coaches’ scores on the Concussion Knowledge Index and the Concussion Attitudes Index, r = .43, p < .01. The results of this research indicate that while youth sport coaches report basic knowledge of concussions, there remain gaps in their education. This highlights the need for research to review current coaching curriculum, observe actual coaching behaviors, and to determine best practices for teaching coaches.

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Rebecca Stanley, Rachel Jones, Christian Swan, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton and Anthony Okely

Background: Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for the Early Years were recently developed. To maximize the uptake of the guidelines, perceptions of key stakeholders were sought. Methods: Thirty-five stakeholders (11% Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent) participated in focus groups or key informant interviews. Stakeholders included parents of children aged 0–5 years, early childhood educators, and health and policy professionals, recruited using convenience and snowballing techniques. Focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed inductively using thematic analysis. Results: There was general acceptance of the Movement Guidelines. The stakeholders suggested that the Guidelines were highly aspirational and needed to be carefully messaged, so parents did not feel guilty if their child was not meeting them. Stakeholders identified that the messaging needed to be culturally appropriate and visually appealing. Dissemination strategies differed depending on the stakeholder. Conclusion: Seeking stakeholder perceptions is an important process in the development of national Movement Guidelines. This study successfully examined stakeholders’ perceptions regarding the acceptability, usability, and dissemination of the Australian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines. Effective and innovative strategies for maximizing compliance and uptake of the Guidelines should be prioritized.

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Joseph Peters, Ian Rice and Tyson Bull

This pilot study investigated the relationship between personal and wheelchair factors on skin pressures at the ischial tuberosity in wheelchair basketball players. Seventeen wheelchair basketball players (7 male and 10 female) were evaluated during static and dynamic propulsive conditions while peak pressure index and peak pressure gradient were recorded with an interface pressure mat. The results showed that greater seat dump angles and backrest heights were negatively associated with the peak pressure index. Therapeutic cushion use was moderately associated with a reduced peak pressure gradient. Higher-class players used chair configurations associated with augmented pressure; however, classification status alone was not associated with pressure magnitude. Body mass index was negatively correlated with the static peak pressure gradient at levels approaching significance (p < .10). In conclusion, greater seat dump angles and backrest heights may provide pressure relief, whereas greater body mass index and therapeutic cushion use may reduce pressure gradients.

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Anne O’Dwyer and Richard Bowles

A range of learning opportunities needs to be afforded to coaches to support the complexity of effective coaching. Coaches learn to coach in formal and informal settings. Much research has advocated collaborative coach learning, but there is a need to conduct research in order to evidence reliable ways to support collaborative coach learning. Self-study has been effective to support practitioners’ learning in teacher education and physical education teacher education. To date, there has been a very limited application of self-study in coaching contexts. This Insights paper advocates the use of collaborative self-study as a reliable and valid approach to support meaningful coach learning. This paper documents the researchers’ own experiences of learning to coach within a collaborative self-study. The coaches focused on developing an athlete-centred coaching approach. This paper illustrates how self-study supported collaboration, reflection, and pedagogical innovation over the course of a Gaelic football season. The authors outline implications for future research into coaching and coach education.

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Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff and Sally Taunton

Purpose: A comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is designed to help school-aged youth meet physical activity guidelines as well as develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that foster meaningful lifelong physical activity participation. In this study, we employed a “diffusion of innovations theory” perspective to examine the adoption of CSPAPs in relation to physical education teachers’ domain-specific innovativeness, educational background, demographics, and perceived school support. Methods: Physical education teachers (N = 407) responded to an electronic survey with validated measures for each of the above-mentioned variables. Results: Latent profile analysis classified teachers into three domain-specific innovativeness levels (high, average, and low). CSPAP-related professional training, knowledge, and perceived school support were found to be significant factors in domain-specific innovativeness and CSPAP adoption. Discussion/Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence to inform professional development initiatives so that they can be tailored to physical education teachers who may be less likely to adopt a CSPAP.

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Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore

Background: Rural counties in the United States face daunting structural issues that reduce their populations’ physical activity levels, including geographic isolation as well as deficits in infrastructure, public transportation, health care providers, and funding. Methods: Funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provided an opportunity to assess how Extension enhanced the collective impact of systems-level physical activity promotion programming through a multisectoral coalition in Clinton County, Kentucky. Results: The Extension-led coalition accomplished the 6 essential functions of a backbone support organization by identifying obesity as a critical local issue (function 1: providing overall strategic direction), developing a multisectoral coalition (function 2: facilitating dialog between partners), compiling data on the county’s physical activity infrastructure (function 3: managing data collection and analysis), creating communication channels (function 4: handling communication), organizing community awareness events (function 5: coordinating community outreach), and securing additional grants (function 6: mobilizing funding). The average rating of Extension’s leadership across multiple dimensions by 3 coalition members in a postproject survey was “excellent” on a 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions: Extension is well positioned through their mission, broad community engagement, data collection, needs assessment, community and academic relationships, and embeddedness in local communities to serve as the backbone support organizations for rural physical activity promotion coalitions.

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Mahsa Jafari, Vahid Zolaktaf and Gholamali Ghasemi

Purpose: Firefighters require a high level of functional fitness to operate safely, effectively, and efficiently. The authors studied the distribution of functional movement screen (FMS) scores in firefighters and examined whether an 8-week corrective exercise program based on National Academy of Sport Medicine guidelines could improve them. Methods: All 524 active firefighters of a city completed the baseline FMS testing. Those who obtained a score of 14 or less, a sign of movement dysfunction, and volunteered to continue their participation were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n = 51) or a control (n = 45) group. Both groups participated in an 8-week training program. The control group used their own usual training routine, but the experimental group used the specific protocol designed for the study. Results: The FMS scores of 43% of the population were less than 14. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction between FMS scores of the groups (F1,94 =165, P < .001). The experimental group showed a 69% improvement from pretest (10.6) to posttest (17.8), whereas the control group showed only a 3% improvement from pretest (11.8) to posttest (12.1). Conclusions: Preceding studies have shown that FMS scores less than 14 increase the injury risk. The findings showed that using our proposed training protocol, low FMS scores could be improved to 14 and higher. Considering the high injury rate of firefighters, the authors suggest administering FMS periodically and to use a training protocol such as ours, to increase functional fitness and reduce injury risk.