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Sheng H. Kioh, Sumaiyah Mat, Shahrul B. Kamaruzzaman, Fatimah Ibrahim, Mas S. Mokhtar, Noran N. Hairi, Robert G. Cumming, Phyo K. Myint and Maw P. Tan

The current evidence on the relationship between a higher body mass index (BMI) and falls in older adults is conflicting. This study, therefore, evaluated the relationship between BMI and falls and explored underlying mechanisms for this relationship. Data from 1,340 individuals from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study, obtained through home-based computer-assisted interviews and followed by hospital-based health checks, were utilized. A history of the presence of falls in the previous 12 months was obtained. The presence of at least one fall in the past 12 months was associated with a higher BMI (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [1.01, 1.06]). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls was, however, attenuated by a lower percentage of lean body mass, which accounted for 69% of the total effect of BMI on the risk of falls. Future studies should now investigate this aforementioned relationship prospectively.

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Nathan Philip Hilton, Nicholas Keith Leach, Melissa May Craig, S. Andy Sparks and Lars Robert McNaughton

Enteric-formulated capsules can mitigate gastrointestinal (GI) side effects following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion; however, it remains unclear how encapsulation alters postingestion symptoms and acid–base balance. The current study aimed to identify the optimal ingestion form to mitigate GI distress following NaHCO3 ingestion. Trained males (n = 14) ingested 300 mg/kg body mass of NaHCO3 in gelatin (GEL), delayed-release (DEL), and enteric-coated (ENT) capsules or a placebo in a randomized cross-over design. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration, potential hydrogen, and GI symptoms were measured pre- and postingestion for 3 hr. Fewer GI symptoms were reported with ENT NaHCO3 than with GEL (p = .012), but not with DEL (p = .106) in the postingestion phase. Symptom severity decreased with DEL (4.6 ± 2.8 arbitrary units) compared with GEL (7.0 ± 2.6 arbitrary units; p = .001) and was lower with ENT (2.8 ± 1.9 arbitrary units) compared with both GEL (p < .0005) and DEL (p = .044) NaHCO3. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration increased in all NaHCO3 conditions compared with the placebo (p < .0005), although this was lower with ENT than with GEL (p = .001) and DEL (p < .0005) NaHCO3. Changes in blood potential hydrogen were reduced with ENT compared with GEL (p = .047) and DEL (p = .047) NaHCO3, with no other differences between the conditions. Ingestion of ENT NaHCO3 attenuates GI disturbances for up to 3 hr postingestion. Therefore, ENT ingestion forms may be favorable for those who report GI disturbances with NaHCO3 supplementation or for those who have previously been deterred from its use altogether.

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Hunter S. Waldman, Brandon D. Shepherd, Brendan Egan and Matthew J. McAllister

In the present study, our team aimed to investigate the effects of acute ingestion of a ketone salt (KS) supplement on the cognitive performance in healthy college-aged males during a dual-stress challenge (DSC). Following a peak oxygen uptake test and DSC familiarization, 16 males completed a DSC while cycling at 60% of their respective peak oxygen uptake after ingesting either a commercially available racemic (D- and L-)β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) KS (0.38 g/kg body mass) or a placebo, using a triple-blinded, crossover, and counterbalanced design. The participants consumed the KS or placebo at −60 and −15 min prior to the start of the DSC. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood β-OHB and glucose were sampled throughout. The DSC consisted of a mental arithmetic challenge and a modified Stroop Color Word, which alternated every 2 min for 20 min. Upon completion of the DSC, responses for correct, incorrect, and no responses were recorded for the mental arithmetic challenge and Stroop Color Word. Blood β-OHB was elevated with KS by −15 min and remained so throughout (p < .001), peaking at 0.76 ± 0.32 mM. Blood glucose was lower with KS compared with the placebo at −15 and 10 min by 9% and 5%, respectively (both ps < .05). There were no differences between the treatments for heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, mental arithmetic challenge, or Stroop Color Word. Overall, this study suggests that KSs are not effective aids for enhancing cognitive performance during a DSC, which might partially be explained by the inability of currently available commercial KS supplements to elevate β-OHB blood concentrations above ∼1.0 mM.

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Seoha Min, Sumin Koo and Jennifer Wilson

Gardening is a common leisure pursuit for many older individuals, and previous research found that gardening activities provide numerous health benefits. Many hazardous situations can occur when gardening, and experts have suggested that older gardeners wear protective gardening garments when gardening. However, there is a lack of research about the important features that must be considered for gardening garments, particularly for older individuals. Thus, this study investigated important design factors for developing gardening garments for older adults, including their design preferences for such garments. This study focused on the population who were born before the year 1960, as this age cohort has begun retiring and shows significant buying power. In-depth interviews and surveys were conducted to achieve the research purpose. The findings from this study will offer insights for designers who seek to better understand and market to this age cohort by designing relevant garments for their gardening activities.

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Yann Le Mansec, Jérôme Perez, Quentin Rouault, Julie Doron and Marc Jubeau

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on badminton performance during a smash stroke. Methods: In total, 17 young, well-trained players completed 20 forehand smashes twice (prefatigue and postfatigue protocol), and both speed and precision of the strokes were measured. The fatigue protocol consisted of 10 series of 10 maximal countermovement jumps (3-s rest in between) followed by 8 lunges. Perception of effort and countermovement-jump performance during each series were also measured to assess fatigue. Results: Shuttlecock speed decreased moderately (−3.3%) but significantly after the fatigue protocol (P < .001, ηp2=.671). Precision significantly decreased after the fatigue protocol (−10.3%, P = .001, ηp2=.473). The decrease in precision was mainly due to an increased number of faults (P = .006, ηp2=.378, d z = 0.756) and to a decrease in accuracy (P = .066, ηp2=.195, d z = 0.478). Conclusion: The present study showed that fatigue impairs performance during specific badminton skills. Moreover, by showing a slight decrease in speed and a large decrease in accuracy of the shuttlecock when fatigue is experienced, the present study suggested that, as previously observed in other racket sports, the speed of the missile appears to be the key factor used by the players to win the rally. Coaches and physical trainers should therefore develop interventions aiming to limit the negative impact of fatigue on badminton strokes.

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Helen G. Hanstock, Andrew D. Govus, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Anna K. Melin, Øystein Sylta and Monica K. Torstveit

Intensive training periods may negatively influence immune function, but the immunological consequences of specific high-intensity-training (HIT) prescriptions are not well defined. Purpose: To explore whether 3 different HIT prescriptions influence multiple health-related biomarkers and whether biomarker responses to HIT were associated with upper-respiratory-illness (URI) risk. Methods: Twenty-five male cyclists and triathletes were randomized to 3 HIT groups and completed 12 HIT sessions over 4 wk. Peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) was determined using an incremental cycling protocol, while resting serum biomarkers (cortisol, testosterone, 25[OH]D, and ferritin), salivary immunoglobulin-A (s-IgA), and energy availability (EA) were assessed before and after the training intervention. Participants self-reported upper-respiratory symptoms during the intervention, and episodes of URI were identified retrospectively. Results: Fourteen athletes reported URIs, but there were no differences in incidence, duration, or severity between groups. Increased risk of URI was associated with higher s-IgA secretion rates (odds ratio = 0.90, 90% confidence interval 0.83–0.97). Lower preintervention cortisol and higher EA predicted a 4% increase in URI duration. Participants with higher V˙O2peak reported higher total symptom scores (incidence rate ratio = 1.07, 90% confidence interval 1.01–1.13). Conclusions: Although multiple biomarkers were weakly associated with risk of URI, the direction of associations between s-IgA, cortisol, EA, and URI risk were inverse to previous observations and physiological rationale. There was a cluster of URIs in the first week of the training intervention, but no samples were collected at this time point. Future studies should incorporate more-frequent sample time points, especially around the onset of new training regimens, and include athletes with suspected or known nutritional deficiencies.

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Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi

A fundamental issue in applied sport psychology is the development of competent professionals who can provide effective and ethical services to clients. The current study uses a qualitative longitudinal design to track the development of five novice sport psychology practitioners in their first year of practice. The research team analyzed and integrated data from surveys, interviews, and journals to understand the participants’ experiences and compare them to previous literature on practitioner development. Participants reported increased confidence and flexibility over time, and reduced their perceived anxiety and dependence on supervision. These changes were similar in nature to what has been reported for counseling trainees, but seemed to happen more quickly. These findings highlight important developmental characteristics of first year sport psychology practitioners, which can help graduate programs to tailor their supervision and training to their students’ needs.

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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer

Flikikammo is a troubling phenomenon in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic backward moving gymnastics skills as a normal part of a routine. To better understand the effects of flikikammo over time, the confidence, perceived pressure, physical well-being, energy, and stress levels of gymnasts (n = 6) and cheerleaders (n = 4) were assessed weekly over 10 weeks. Half of the participants reported experiencing flikikammo at the start of the study, and half served as age, skill level, and sport-matched controls. Athletes with flikikammo indicated that pressure from coaches and higher energy levels were related to more severe flikikammo. For participants under the age of 18, higher levels of life stress positively correlated with flikikammo, but for those over 18, higher life stress was negatively correlated with flikikammo. These findings highlight the complexity of flikikammo and suggest that complex solutions may be needed to address flikikammo issues.

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David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson

This double-blinded, placebo controlled, randomized crossover trial investigated the influence of 2-week mixed flavonoid versus placebo supplementation on oxinflammation markers after a 75-km cycling time trial in 22 cyclists (42.3 ± 1.7 years). Blood samples were collected before and after the 2-week supplementation, and then 0 hr, 1.5 hr, and 21 hr post 75-km cycling (176 ± 5.4 min, 73.4 ±2.0% maximal oxygen consumption). The supplement provided 678-mg flavonoids with quercetin (200 mg), green tea catechins (368 mg, 180-mg epigallocatechin gallate), and anthocyanins (128 mg) from bilberry extract, with caffeine, vitamin C, and omega-3 fatty acids added as adjuvants. Blood samples were analyzed for blood leukocyte counts, oxinflammation biomarkers, including 4-hydroxynonenal, protein carbonyls, and peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 and glutathione peroxidase. Each of the blood biomarkers was elevated postexercise (time effects, all ps < .01), with lower plasma levels for 4-hydroxynonenal (at 21-hr postexercise) in flavonoid versus placebo (interaction effect, p = .008). Although elevated postexercise, no trial differences for the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (p = .539) or peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 (p = .322) or glutathione peroxidase (p = .839) were shown. Flavonoid supplementation prior to intensive exercise decreased plasma peroxidation and oxidative damage, as determined by 4-hydroxynonenal. Postexercise increases were similar between the flavonoid and placebo trials for peripheral blood mononuclear mRNA expression for cyclooxygenease-2 and the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 related gene glutathione peroxidase (NFE2L2). The data support the strategy of flavonoid supplementation to mitigate postexercise oxidative stress in endurance athletes.

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Laurel W. Sheffield and Lauren A. Stutts

Collegiate athletes are frequently exposed to pain/injury, which has the potential to negatively impact their physical and psychological health. This quasi-experimental study investigated the influence of gender and athletic status on deciding whether pain should be reported to the head coach in a vignette. Participants included 236 undergraduates who read four vignettes describing athletes (two men, two women) who were experiencing pain while playing a sport and made recommendations about whether the athlete should report the pain. Regardless of the gender of the athlete in the vignette, women and non-Division I athletes were more confident that the pain should be reported to the coach than men and athletes. Division I athletes’ recommendations for others to report pain did not align with what they reported practicing themselves. These results suggest that athletes and coaches should receive education about the factors that may lead an athlete to choose not to report pain.