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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is known to benefit cognition among older adults, but the impact of active travel is unclear. To explore this relationship, data from the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 2,702; mean age = 70) were retrieved on the self-reported frequency and duration of active travel (walking/cycling for transport, >20 min), LTPA engagement (e.g., sport), and three cognitive outcomes. Four groups were created according to physical activity guidelines (600 metabolic equivalent of task/week): inactive (n = 1,790), active travelers (n = 210), engaging in LTPA (n = 579), and engaging in both (n = 123). Analysis of covariance (and follow-up comparisons) revealed a significant main effect for each cognition variable, after adjusting for the covariates, indicating that those engaging in LTPA performed the best. Although correlational, these findings suggest that LTPA engagement may be important for cognition among older adults, but active travel did not provide added benefit.

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Kim C. Graber, K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian and Amelia Mays Woods

Purpose: Grounded in occupational socialization theory, the purpose of this investigation was to examine U.S. physical education teacher education faculty members’ work role preferences, how their actual work role responsibilities compare to institutional expectations, and differences in these preferences and responsibilities based on gender and institution type (i.e., bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral institutions). Methods: Participants included 323 physical education teacher education faculty members (188 females and 135 males) from 230 institutions of higher education who completed an online survey. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a series of 3 × 2 (Institution Type × Gender) factorial analysis of variances. Results: There was relative alignment between what faculty members are expected to do, what they prefer to do, and how they actually spend their time. There are, however, some important differences based on gender and institutional classification. Discussion/Conclusion: Results are discussed within the framework of occupational socialization theory and with reference to faculty role expectations and the propensity for role conflict.

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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Neal R. Glaviano

Context: Central activation ratio (CAR) is a common outcome measure used to quantify gross neuromuscular function of the quadriceps using the superimposed burst technique, yet this outcome measure has not been validated in the gluteal musculature. Objective: To quantify gluteus medius (GMed) and gluteus maximus (GMax) CAR in a healthy population and evaluate its validity and reliability over a 1-week period. Design: Descriptive. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 20 healthy participants (9 males and 11 females; age 22.2 [1.4] y, height 173.4 [11.1] cm, mass 84.8 [25.8] kg) were enrolled in this study. Interventions: Participants were assessed at 2 sessions, separated by 1 week. Progressive electrical stimuli (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) were delivered to the GMed and GMax at rest, and 100% stimuli were delivered during progressive hip abduction and extension contractions (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% maximal voluntary isometric contraction). Main Outcome Measures: GMed and GMax CAR, and hip abduction and hip extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque. Line of best fit and coefficient of determination (r 2) were used to assess the relationship between torque output and CAR at varying levels of stimuli. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ICCs(3,k), were used to assess the between-session reliability. Results: GMed CAR was 96.1% (3.4%) and 96.6% (3.2%), on visits 1 and 2, respectively, whereas GMax CAR was 86.5% (7.5%) and 87.2% (10.7%) over the 2 sessions. A third-order polynomial demonstrated the best line of fit between varying superimposed burst intensities at rest for both GMed (r 2 = .156) and GMax (r 2 = .602). Linear relationships were observed in the CAR during progressive contractions with a maximal superimposed burst, GMed (r 2 = .409) and GMax (r 2 = .639). Between-session reliability was excellent for GMed CAR, ICC(3,k) = .911, and moderate for GMax CAR, ICC(3,k) = .704. Conclusion: CAR appears to be an acceptable measure of GMed and GMax neuromuscular function in healthy individuals. Gluteal CAR measurements are reliable measures over a 1-week test period.

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Stephanie Truelove, Andrew M. Johnson, Shauna M. Burke and Patricia Tucker

Purpose: We aimed to explore and compare generalist and physical education (PE) specialist (males and females) elementary teachers’ self-efficacy to teach and the barriers perceived when teaching PE. Methods: Canadian elementary school teachers completed the validated online survey, Teacher Efficacy Scale in PE, with 11 additional questions examining the perceived strength of barriers related to teaching quality PE. Results: Specialist teachers’ self-efficacy (n = 296) was significantly higher (p < .05) than that of generalist teachers (n = 818). Gender was found to predict teachers’ self-efficacy, with female generalists reporting the lowest scores on the Teacher Efficacy Scale in PE. There was a statistically significant difference between the perceived strength of nine out of the 11 listed barriers, with generalist teachers reporting barriers as more inhibitory than specialists. Discussion/Conclusion: This study highlights the gap between generalists’ and specialists’ self-efficacy to teach and the perceived barriers when teaching PE. Efforts specifically targeted to supporting female generalists teaching PE are necessary.

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Jay R. Ebert, Kate E. Webster, Peter K. Edwards, Brendan K. Joss, Peter D’Alessandro, Greg Janes and Peter Annear

Context: The importance of rehabilitation and evaluation prior to return to sport (RTS) in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has been reported. Objective: This study sought to investigate current perspectives of Australian orthopedic surgeons on rehabilitation and RTS evaluation. Design: Survey. Participants: Members of the Australian Knee Society. Main Outcome Measures: A 14-question survey was disseminated to Australian Knee Society members (orthopedic surgeons) to investigate (1) preferred graft choice, (2) estimated retear rate, (3) importance of preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation, and (4) preferred timing of RTS and evaluation prior to RTS discharge. Results: Of all 85 Australian Knee Society members contacted, 86% (n = 73) responded. Overall, 66 respondents (90.4%) preferentially used hamstring tendon autografts. All surgeons estimated their retear rate to be ≤15%, with 31 (42.5%) <5%. Twenty-eight surgeons (38.4%) reported no benefit in preoperative rehabilitation. The majority of surgeons (82.2%–94.5%) reported that postoperative rehabilitation was important within various periods throughout the postoperative timeline. Most surgeons did not permit RTS until ≥9 months (n = 56, 76.7%), with 17 (23.3%) allowing RTS between 6 and 9 months. The most highly reported considerations for RTS clearance were time (90.4%), functional capacity (90.4%), and strength (78.1%). Most commonly, knee strength and/or function was assessed via referral to a preferred rehabilitation specialist (50.7%) or with the surgeon at their practice (11.0%). Conclusions: This survey revealed variation in beliefs and practices surrounding rehabilitation and RTS evaluation. This is despite the current evidence demonstrating the benefit of preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation, as well as the emerging potential of RTS assessments consisting of strength and functional measures to reduce reinjury rates.

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Isabel Mayer, Matthias W. Hoppe, Jürgen Freiwald, Rafael Heiss, Martin Engelhardt, Casper Grim, Christoph Lutter, Moritz Huettel, Raimund Forst and Thilo Hotfiel

Context: Foam rolling (FR) has been developed into a popular intervention and has been established in various sports disciplines. However, its effects on target tissue, including changes in stiffness properties, are still poorly understood. Objective: To investigate muscle-specific and connective tissue-specific responses after FR in recreational athletes with different FR experience. Design: Case series. Setting: Laboratory environment. Participants: The study was conducted with 40 participants, consisting of 20 experienced (EA) and 20 nonexperienced athletes (NEA). Intervention: The FR intervention included 5 trials per 45 seconds of FR of the lateral thigh in the sagittal plane with 20 seconds of rest between each trial. Main Outcome Measures: Acoustic radiation force impulse elastosonography values, represented as shear wave velocity, were obtained under resting conditions (t0) and several times after FR exercise (0 min [t1], 30 min [t2], 6 h [t3], and 24 h [t4]). Data were assessed in superficial and deep muscle (vastus lateralis muscle; vastus intermedius muscle) and in connective tissue (iliotibial band). Results: In EA, tissue stiffness of the iliotibial band revealed a significant decrease of 13.2% at t1 (P ≤ .01) and 12.1% at t3 (P = .02). In NEA, a 6.2% increase of stiffness was found at t1, which was not significantly different to baseline (P = .16). For both groups, no significant iliotibial band stiffness changes were found at further time points. Also, regarding muscle stiffness, no significant changes were detected at any time for EA and NEA (P > .05). Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant short-term decrease of connective tissue stiffness in EA, which may have an impact on the biomechanical output of the connective tissue. Thus, FR effects on tissue stiffness depend on the athletes’ experience in FR, and existing studies have to be interpreted cautiously in the context of the enrolled participants.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle

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Sarah C. Moudy, Neale A. Tillin, Amy R. Sibley and Siobhán Strike

Individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations experience greater work demand and loading on the intact limb compared with the prosthetic limb, placing this limb at a greater risk of knee joint degenerative conditions. It is possible that increased loading on the intact side may occur due to strength deficits and joint absorption mechanics. This study investigated the intact limb mechanics utilized to attenuate load, independent of prosthetic limb contributions and requirements for forward progression, which could provide an indication of deficiencies in the intact limb. Amputee and healthy control participants completed 3 unilateral drop landings from a 30-cm drop height. Joint angles at touchdown; range of motion; coupling angles; peak powers; and negative work of the ankle, knee, and hip were extracted together with isometric quadriceps strength measures. No significant differences were found in the load or movement mechanics (P ≥ .31, g ≤ 0.42), despite deficits in isometric maximum (20%) and explosive (25%) strength (P ≤ .13, g ≥ 0.61) in the intact limb. These results demonstrate that, when the influence from the prosthetic limb and task demand are absent, and despite deficits in strength, the intact limb adopts joint mechanics similar to able-bodied controls to attenuate limb loading.

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

Purpose: Variables currently used in soccer training monitoring fail to represent the physiological demand of the player during movements like accelerations, decelerations, and directional changes performed at high intensity. We tested the hypothesis that respiratory frequency (f R) is a marker of physical effort during soccer-related high-intensity exercise. Methods: A total of 12 male soccer players performed a preliminary intermittent incremental test and 2 shuttle-run high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols, in separate visits. The 2 HIIT protocols consisted of 12 repetitions over 9 minutes and differed in the work-to-recovery ratio (15:30 vs 30:15 s). Work rate was self-paced by participants to achieve the longest possible total distance in each HIIT protocol. Results: Work-phase average metabolic power was higher (P < .001) in the 15:30-second protocol (31.7 [3.0] W·kg−1) compared with the 30:15-second protocol (22.8 [2.0] W·kg−1). Unlike heart rate and oxygen uptake, f R showed a fast response to the work–recovery alternation during both HIIT protocols, resembling changes in metabolic power even at supramaximal intensities. Large correlations (P < .001) were observed between f R and rating of perceived exertion during both 15:30-second (r = .87) and 30:15-second protocols (r = .85). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that f R is a good marker of physical effort during shuttle-run HIIT in soccer players. These findings have implications for monitoring training in soccer and other team sports.

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Yubing Wang and Ang Chen

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the extent to which a concept-based physical education curriculum, specifically the Science of Healthful Living (SHL) curriculum, influenced middle school students’ knowledge, motivation for physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA), and out-of-school PA. Methods: A static group comparison design was adopted to analyze the differences on fitness knowledge, autonomous motivation for PE and PA, and out-of-school PA between eighth-grade students who studied the SHL curriculum (the experimental condition, n = 168) and their peers who studied a multiactivity PE (the control condition, n = 226) 1 year earlier. Results: The students who studied the SHL curriculum demonstrated significantly higher levels of knowledge (p < .05, Cohen d = 0.81), autonomous motivation toward PA (p < .05, Cohen d = 0.20), and out-of-school PA (p < .05, Mann–Whitney U effect size = 0.01) than students who had experienced the multiactivity PE. The students in both conditions were equally motivated in their respective PE courses. Conclusion: The SHL curriculum is effective in promoting students’ PA behavior outside of the school.