Purpose: Most research examining the effects of socialization on physical education teachers’ curricula is dated, has been incidental, and conducted in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of occupational socialization on the curricula delivered by elementary teachers. Methods: Participants were 10 teachers. Data were collected with six qualitative techniques and analyzed by employing standard interpretive methods. Findings and Discussion: Three groups of teachers were identified. These were nonteachers, conservatives, and progressives. The curricula they delivered varied greatly in terms of pedagogies and quality. Each teacher group was closely aligned to orientations for teaching and coaching, and these orientations were forged by the teachers’ socialization profiles. Conclusions: The findings provided clues as to how the cycle of poor and nonteaching might be broken in U.S. elementary schools. In addition, these findings served to potentially modify occupational socialization theory pertaining to physical education.
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Laura Prior and Matthew Curtner-Smith
Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox
Sleeping with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability is a dietary strategy that may enhance training adaptation. However, the impact on an athlete’s health is unclear. This study quantified the effect of a short-term “sleep-low” dietary intervention on markers of iron regulation and immune function in athletes. In a randomized, repeated-measures design, 11 elite triathletes completed two 4-day mixed cycle run training blocks. Key training sessions were structured such that a high-intensity training session was performed in the field on the afternoon of Days 1 and 3, and a low-intensity training (LIT) session was performed on the following morning in the laboratory (Days 2 and 4). The ingestion of CHO was either divided evenly across the day (HIGH) or restricted between the high-intensity training and LIT sessions, so that the LIT session was performed with low CHO availability (LOW). Venous blood and saliva samples were collected prior to and following each LIT session and analyzed for interleukin-6, hepcidin 25, and salivary immunoglobulin-A. Concentrations of interleukin-6 increased acutely after exercise (p < .001), but did not differ between dietary conditions or days. Hepcidin 25 increased 3-hr postexercise (p < .001), with the greatest increase evident after the LOW trial on Day 2 (2.5 ± 0.9 fold increase ±90% confidence limit). The salivary immunoglobulin-A secretion rate did not change in response to exercise; however, it was highest during the LOW condition on Day 4 (p = .046). There appears to be minimal impact to markers of immune function and iron regulation when acute exposure to low CHO availability is undertaken with expert nutrition and coaching input.
Carlos Capella-Peris, Jesús Gil-Gómez and Òscar Chiva-Bartoll
Purpose: To compare the development of teaching competency in preservice teachers of physical education (n = 96) through two different modalities of intervention from the same service-learning program. The preservice teachers provided a direct service to children with motor functional diversity, promoting their motor skills and counteracting their lack of social attention. Method: The topic was approached using mixed methods with methodological triangulation. Quantitative evidence was gathered through a quasi-experimental design of two nonequivalent experimental groups implementing the following instrument: the Teaching Competency while performing Motor Skills and Body Language Games Rubric. Meanwhile, qualitative analysis was undertaken by elaborating upon 12 life histories of multiple crossed stories. Results: The quantitative results provided significant evidence regarding the academic effect of service-learning on preservice teachers, while the qualitative interpretation complemented this view, reflecting on how this learning was developed. Discussion/Conclusion: The authors provided the original findings of the service-learning effects on the teaching competency of preservice teachers as well as the promotion of additional academic and social learning.
Grace C. Bellinger, Kristen A. Pickett and Andrea H. Mason
Reaching and grasping are often completed while walking, yet the interlimb coordination required for such a combined task is not fully understood. Previous studies have produced contradictory evidence regarding preference for support of the lower limb ipsilateral or contralateral to the upper limb when performing a reaching task. This coordinative aspect of the combined task provides insight into whether the two tasks are mutually modified or if the reach is superimposed upon normal arm swinging. Collectively, 18 right-handed young adults walked slower, took shorter steps, and spent more time in double support during the combined task compared with walking alone. The peak grasp aperture was larger in walking reach-to-grasp trials compared with standing trials. There was not a strong trend for lower limb support preferences at the reach initiation or object contact. The participants could begin walking with either foot and demonstrated variability of preferred gait initiation patterns. There was a range of interlimb coordination patterns, none of which could be generalized to all young adults. The variability with which healthy right-handed young adults execute a combined walking reach-to-grasp task suggests that the cyclical (walking) and discrete (prehension) motor tasks may have separate motor control mechanisms, as proposed in the two primitives theory.
Aliza K. Nedimyer, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey and Erik A. Wikstrom
Our objective was to quantify the functional and morphological characteristics of the plantar intrinsic muscles in those with and without a history of exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP). Thirty-two active runners—24 with a history of ERLLP—volunteered. Strength of the flexor hallucis brevis and flexor digitorum brevis, postural control, and navicular drop were recorded. Morphology of the abductor hallucis, flexor digitorum brevis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles were captured using ultrasonography. Those with ERLLP had smaller flexor hallucis brevis morphology measures (p ≤ .015) and a greater reliance on visual information while balancing (p = .05). ERLLP appears to alter intrinsic muscle function and morphology.
Mark S. Tremblay
Background: Emerging research shows that the composition of movement behaviors throughout the day (physical activities, sedentary behaviors, sleep) is related to indicators of health, suggesting previous research that isolated single movement behaviors maybe incomplete, misleading, and/or unnecessarily constrained. Methods: This brief report summarizes evidence to support a 24-hour movement behavior paradigm and efforts to date by a variety of jurisdictions to consult, develop, release, promote, and study 24-hour movement guidelines. It also introduces and summarizes the accompanying series of articles related specifically to 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years. Results: Using robust and transparent processes, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and the World Health Organization have developed and released 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Other countries are exploring a similar approach and related research is expanding rapidly. Articles related to guideline development in South Africa, the United Kingdom, Australia, and by the World Health Organization are a part of this special series. Conclusions: A new paradigm employing 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years that combines recommendations for movement behaviors across the whole day is gaining momentum across the globe.
Brigid M. Lynch, Andrea Ramirez Varela and Terry Boyle
Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov
Purpose: Despite being linked with motivationally supportive instruction, little research has investigated antecedents to physical educators’ psychological need satisfaction. This study examined relationships between physical educators’ perceived mattering, role stress, and psychological need satisfaction. Method: The participants included 472 in-service physical educators (232 males and 240 females) from the eastern United States who completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate a conceptual model detailing the relationships among study variables. Results: The conceptual model was a good fit for the data, χ2(358) = 657.16, p < .001, root mean square error of approximation = .042 (90% confidence interval [.037, .047], p = .996), standardized root mean residual = .051, nonnormalized fit index = .949, comparative fit index = .955. Generally, perceived mattering influenced role ambiguity and relatedness satisfaction. Role overload and role ambiguity are negatively associated with competence satisfaction, and role conflict is negatively associated with autonomy satisfaction. Discussion: The findings indicate that elevating physical education teachers’ perceived mattering may reduce role stress and increase psychological need satisfaction.
Arzu Erden and Murat Emirzeoğlu
Context: The level of body awareness, performance emotional state (PES), and demographic characteristics in different sports are subjects to be investigated. It is important to examine the concepts of PES and body awareness to better understand the body–mind relationship in different sports. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the level of body awareness and PES of athletes. Design: In this cross-sectional study, the independent variables are groups (4 different sports), and the dependent variables are body awareness and PES. Participants: The study was conducted on 188 licensed athletes (85 footballers, 36 basketball players, 34 handball players, and 33 swimmers). The mean age of the participants was 14.64 (1.89) years, mean height was 172.44 (11.03) cm, and mean body weight was 62.35 (13.12) kg. Settings: Four sports clubs and 2 high schools were the intervention facilities. Intervention: Body Awareness Questionnaire and Continuous Optimal Performance Emotional Status Scale-2 were used for data collection. Sociodemographic information was recorded. Main Outcome Measures: One-way analysis of variance was used for analysis of normal distribution data in 4 different groups, and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used for the analysis of data that did not show normal distribution. Results: There was no difference in body awareness among the branches (P = .17). The PES of the footballers was better than that of other athletes (P = .01). The correlation between body awareness and PES was medium (r = .47, P < .01), and the correlations between body awareness and age, licensed year, and number of weekly training sessions were weak (r = .22, P < .01; r = .19, P < .01; r = .15, P = .03). Conclusions: The body awareness of athletes may not differ among different sports, but PES is related to many factors such as mood, age, license years, and number of training sessions. In rehabilitation and training, body awareness and PES should be evaluated together.