In this article we analyze images of sportswomen from four media outlets over the course of the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games in Australia. Through visual discourse analysis we find that despite structural changes to increase gender equality at the Commonwealth Games—which for the first time ensured equal opportunities for men and women to win medals—sportswomen were still depicted in a very narrow way, and intersectional representations were mainly excluded. Though the quantity of images of women had increased, the ‘quality’ of these images was poor in terms of representing sportswomen in their diversity. We still have far to go if we are to embrace women in their multiplicity—and to recognize that women can be strong, capable, butch, femme, and varied in their range of expressions of gender, sexuality, race, and ethnicity.
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Adele Pavlidis, Millicent Kennelly and Laura Rodriguez Castro
Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine if the Digi-Walker SW-200 (SW-200), New Lifestyles NL-2000 (NL-2000), and Omron HJ-303 (HJ-303) yield similar daily step counts compared to the StepWatch-3; and (2) to determine if pedometer error is influenced by adiposity and/or stepping rate in African American women. Methods: 60 participants (28.0 ± 9.8 y) wore the devices for three weekdays. ANOVAs were performed to determine if body mass index (BMI) and device were related to steps per day, and to determine if BMI and device were related to error. Stepwise linear regressions were performed to determine which variables contributed to pedometer error. Results: StepWatch-3 counted significantly more steps than all other devices within each BMI category (p < .01). The NL-2000 had significantly less error in the normal (−13.4%) and overweight (−14.9%) groups compared to the SW-200 (−26.2% and −33.3%) and HJ-303 (−32.5% ad −31.5%) (p < .05). The SW-200 had significantly more error in the obese group (−50.7%) compared to the NL-2000 (−17.1%) and HJ-303 (−26.0%) (p < .05). NL-2000 error was not related to any variables while the SW-200 error was related to waist circumference (WC) and the HJ-303 error was related to percentage of slow steps. Conclusion: In African American women adiposity is more strongly related to more pedometer error in a device using a spring-levered mechanism (SW-200). Accumulating steps at a slow rate is related to more pedometer error when using a device with a step filter (HJ-303).
Lea-Cathrin Dohme, David Piggott, Susan Backhouse and Gareth Morgan
Research has identified psychological skills and characteristics (PSCs) perceived to facilitate talented youth athletes’ development. However, no systematic categorization or synthesis of these PSCs exists to date. To provide such synthesis, this systematic review aimed to identify PSCs perceived as facilitative of talented youth athletes’ development, group and label synonymous PSCs, and categorize PSCs based on definitions established by Dohme, Backhouse, Piggott, and Morgan (2017). PRISMA systematic-review guidelines were employed and a comprehensive literature search of SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and ERIC completed in November 2017. Twenty-five empirical studies published between 2002 and 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Through thematic analysis, 19 PSCs were identified as facilitative of youth athletes’ development—8 were categorized as psychological skills (e.g., goal setting, social-support seeking, and self-talk) and 11 as psychological characteristics (e.g., self-confidence, focus, and motivation). The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Gareth J. Jones, Katie Misener, Per G. Svensson, Elizabeth Taylor and Moonsup Hyun
Interorganizational relationships are a well-established practice among nonprofit youth sport organizations seeking to acquire key resources and improve service efficiencies. However, less is known about how broader trends in the nonprofit sector influence their utilization. Guided by Austin’s collaborative continuum and resource dependency theory, this study analyzed how interorganizational relationships are utilized by different nonprofit youth sport organizations in one American context. The results indicate that high-resource organizations primarily utilize philanthropic and transactional forms of collaboration, whereas integrative collaboration is more likely among low-resource organizations. The discussion draws on resource dependency theory to provide theoretical insight into this association, as well as the implications for collaborative value generated through interorganizational relationships.
Jan-Erik Romar and Magnus Ferry
Purpose: This study was framed with an explorative approach in which preservice classroom teachers (PCTs) participated in physical education learning activities. The purpose was to investigate the construction of their practical knowledge. Methods: Data collection was integrated into a methods course and included a written text assignment in which 28 PCTs described significant didactical milestones (practical knowledge) that will guide their future teaching in physical education. The qualitative analysis of the didactical milestones involved identifying the content of and arguments for their milestones and categorizing them based on common themes and categories. Results: The results showed that the content of the PCTs’ practical knowledge was mainly pedagogical and focused most often on instructional strategies; the reasons were related to students and their learning processes. Conclusion: By exploring and understanding PCTs’ learning of practical knowledge, teacher educators can help to bridge the gap between theory at university and the practice of teaching.
Seiichiro Takei, Kuniaki Hirayama and Junichi Okada
Purpose: The optimal load for maximal power output during hang power cleans (HPCs) from a mechanical perspective is the 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) load; however, previous research has reported otherwise. The present study thus aimed to investigate the underlying factors that determine optimal load during HPCs. Methods: Eight competitive Olympic weight lifters performed HPCs at 40%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, and 100% of their 1RM while the ground-reaction force and bar/body kinematics were simultaneously recorded. The success criterion during HPC was set above parallel squat at the receiving position. Results: Both peak power and relative peak power were maximized at 80% 1RM (3975.7 [439.1] W, 50.4 [6.6] W/kg, respectively). Peak force, force at peak power, and relative values tended to increase with heavier loads (P < .001), while peak system velocity and system velocity at peak power decreased significantly above 80% 1RM (P = .005 and .011, respectively). There were also significant decreases in peak bar velocity (P < .001) and bar displacement (P < .001) toward heavier loads. There was a strong positive correlation between peak bar velocity and bar displacement in 7 of 8 subjects (r > .90, P < .01). The knee joint angle at the receiving position fell below the quarter-squat position above 70% 1RM. Conclusions: Submaximal loads were indeed optimal for maximal power output for HPC when the success criterion was set above the parallel-squat position. However, when the success criterion was defined as the quarter-squat position, the optimal load became the 1RM load.
Alison Doherty and Graham Cuskelly
Using a multidimensional framework, the authors developed the Community Sport Capacity Scale to measure the key elements of capacity in community sport organizations or clubs and investigate their relative impact on three key indicators of club performance. Presidents or their representatives from 336 community sport organizations in 20 sports across the province of Ontario, Canada, completed the web-based survey measuring the extent of various elements of human resources, infrastructure, finance, planning, and external relationships capacity. The survey also measured club operations, programs, and community presence, identified as key performance outcomes. Controlling for club size, elements representing all five capacity dimensions were significantly associated with the outcomes. The findings highlight the rich information that may be generated from a multidimensional and context-specific perspective on organizational capacity, and indicate implications for building capacity in community sport organizations.
Matthew Katz, Aaron C. Mansfield and B. David Tyler
Sport management researchers have increasingly noted a relationship between sport spectatorship and well-being, with the line of inquiry predicated on transformative sport service research. In this study, the authors contribute to transformative sport service research by utilizing multilevel egocentric network analysis to examine the consumption networks of National Football League fans over the course of one season. The authors utilized a network theory approach to explore how emotional support is created and embedded within sport fans’ networks of interpersonal ties and social relationships. Through multilevel modeling, the authors highlighted how attributes of both the ego (i.e., focal actor) and alter (i.e., individual with whom ego shares a tie) affect emotional support. Previous studies of transformative sport service research and the link between well-being outcomes and sport spectatorship have implicitly examined only ego-level attributes (i.e., team identification), yet the present work suggests that emotional support depends on the interpersonal ties and network structures within which sport fans are embedded.
Margaret Delaney, Meghan Warren, Brian Kinslow, Hendrik de Heer and Kathleen Ganley
Disability is a tremendous public health challenge. No study has assessed whether meeting U.S. Physical Activity guidelines is associated with disability in mobility tasks, activities of daily living, and social participation among U.S. older adults. Using 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, this study examined this relationship among 8,309 individuals aged ≥50 years. Most participants (n = 4,272) did not achieve guidelines, and 2,912 participants were completely inactive. People who did not meet guidelines had higher odds of disability compared with those who did (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.80) in addition to difficulty with mobility tasks (AOR = 1.85), activities of daily living (AOR = 1.66), and social participation (AOR = 2.09). There was a dose–response effect for each level of activity (inactive, insufficient, and meeting and exceeding recommendations). Among adults aged ≥50 years, meeting the U.S. guidelines was associated with better social and physical functioning.
Nicolas Robin, Lucette Toussaint, Stéphane Sinnapah, Olivier Hue and Guillaume R. Coudevylle
Inactivity is known to have harmful effects on the physical and mental health of older adults. This study used a randomized, parallel trial design to evaluate whether daily text prompts to practice mindfulness would have a positive impact on the time that adults aged 50 years or older spend in aerobic physical activity. The participants were recruited from a certified fitness center and divided into mindfulness and control groups. For 4 weeks, they were exposed to the experimental conditions, with or without the morning text message. In the morning message condition, the mindfulness groups received a text message with the instruction to practice audio-guided mindfulness for 10 min, and the control group received a placebo message. The participants practicing mindfulness reported significantly more weekly minutes of aerobic physical activity and higher intrinsic motivation than the control participants. Mindfulness training was effective at increasing aerobic physical activity duration and might complement physical activity programs.