Context: Concussions are shown to hinder multiple health dimensions, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL), suggesting a need for a whole-person approach to assessment and treatment. Patient-reported outcome measures are one method to gather the patient’s perspective regarding their HRQOL. Objective: To evaluate perceived HRQOL using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric-25 subscale in patients throughout concussion recovery. Design: Prospective cohort, descriptive survey. Setting: There were 9 high school athletic training facilities. Participants: A total of 70 patients with diagnosed concussions (51 males, 7 females, 12 unreported; age = 15.7 [0.9] y, height = 174.6 [8.4] cm, mass = 72.8 [14.8] kg, grade = 10.0 [0.9] level). Interventions: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric-25 was administered at 3 days, 10 days postconcussion, and return to play (RTP). Main Outcome Measures: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pediatric-25 subscale T scores and self-reported concussion history (yes/no). Results: A total of 70 patients completed the study. For the Pediatric-25 subscales, the severity of problems associated with Physical Function Mobility, Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Pain Interference were highest 3 days postconcussion, decreasing at 10 days and RTP (all p < .05). No differences were found between days 3 and 10 for Peer Relationship scores, but improvements were identified at RTP (p < .05). Pediatric-25 subscale scores at the 3 measurements were not statistically associated with concussion history (all p > .05). Ceiling and floor effects were present in all subscales throughout each timepoint, except for Physical Function Mobility (14.7%), and pain interference (11.8%) at day 3 postinjury. Conclusions: Patients who had suffered a concussion improved from day 3 through RTP on multiple health domains as demonstrated through the Pediatric-25 subscales. These findings highlight the need for health care professionals to serially monitor HRQOL and social factors that may affect the patient postconcussion as part of a multifactorial assessment. Ceiling effects in high functioning adolescent athletes were present; thus, efforts should be made to identify appropriate scales for use in managing recovery in athletic populations.
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Richelle M. Williams, Rachel S. Johnson, Alison R. Snyder Valier, R. Curtis Bay and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod
Marcin Straczkiewicz, Nancy W. Glynn, Vadim Zipunnikov and Jaroslaw Harezlak
Background: The increasing popularity of wrist-worn accelerometers introduces novel challenges to the research on physical activity and sedentary behavior. Estimation of body posture is one such challenge. Methods: The authors proposed an approach called SedUp to differentiate between sedentary (sitting/lying) and standing postures. SedUp is based on the logistic regression classifier, using the wrist elevation and the motion variability extracted from raw accelerometry data collected on the axis parallel to the forearm. The authors developed and tested our method on data from N = 45 community-dwelling older adults. All subjects wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the left and right wrist, and activPAL was placed on the thigh in the free-living environment for 7 days. ActivPAL provided ground truth about body posture. The authors reported SedUp’s classification accuracy for each wrist separately. Results: Using the data from the left wrist, SedUp estimated the standing posture with median true positive rate = 0.83 and median true negative rate = 0.91. Using the data from the right wrist, SedUp estimated the standing posture with median true positive rate = 0.86 and median true negative rate = 0.93. Conclusions: SedUp provides accurate classification of body posture using wrist-worn accelerometers. The separate validation for each wrist allows for the application of SedUp in a wide spectrum of free-living studies.
Justin B. Hollander, Ann Sussman, Peter Lowitt, Neil Angus and Minyu Situ
Background: Understanding more about the unseen side of our responses to visual stimuli offers a powerful new tool for transportation planning. Traditional transportation planning tends to focus on the mobility of vehicles rather than on opportunities to encourage sustainable transport modes, like walking. Methods: Using eye-tracking emulation software, this study measured the unconscious visual responses people have to designs and layouts in new built environments, focusing on what makes streets most walkable. Results: The study found key differences between the way the brain takes in conventional automobile-oriented residential developments versus new urbanist layouts, with the former lacking key fixation points. Conclusion: The study’s discoveries significantly explain why new urbanist layouts promote walking effortlessly and conventional automobile-oriented residential developments cannot.
Gashaw Abeza, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Benoit Séguin, Norm O’Reilly, Ari Kim and Yann Abdourazakou
This study explored the practices and strategies of ambush marketing via social media (SM) during the 2014 Sochi, 2016 Rio, and 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Games. An observational netnography method was adopted to investigate direct industry competitors’ (of the Olympic sponsors) use of SM for the purpose of ambush marketing during the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games. Data were gathered from the official Twitter accounts of 15 direct industry competitors over the three most recent Games. Despite a series of SM guidelines released by IOC for the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games, the findings showed that the practice of ambush marketing via SM was evident during each of the Games. Direct industry competitors were found employing four specific ambush strategies, namely, associative, values, coattail, and property infringement. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as an impetus for future research, are suggested.
Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander and Gordon A. Bloom
There is a growing body of research on positive tactile communication and its impact on athlete performance and team dynamics. The purpose of the present study was to examine the profile and perceived impact of positive tactile communication as a coaching strategy in a high-performance team sport setting. Participants were members of a successful American collegiate women’s basketball team comprising the head coach, associate head coach, and 16 student-athletes. Methods of data collection included systematic observation and focus groups. Positive tactile communication was perceived to be an effective coaching strategy for enhancing relationships and athlete performance. To our knowledge, this is the first study to include both quantitative and qualitative data from multiple coaches on the same team, as well as athlete perceptions of coaches’ strategic use of positive tactile communication.
Tim Ströbel, B. David Ridpath, Herbert Woratschek, Norm O’Reilly, Markus Buser and Michael Pfahl
Scholars forecast that globalization will require sport managers to have competencies in international business. Sport, due to its global nature, has become an international business, leading to sport management programs at postsecondary institutions growing in number and the marketing of such programs becoming a key success factor. In an increasingly competitive educational environment, both effective curriculum offerings and innovative marketing, including branding, are important for a successful sport management program. This article shares a case study of innovative marketing—the co-branding through a double degree program between two long-standing sport management programs, one in North America (Ohio University, United States) and one in Europe (University of Bayreuth, Germany). This program is designed to enhance international education, as well as global internship and job-placement opportunities. The details of the double degree program within the background of co-branding are presented as a pedagogical framework for international education. Data from a survey of industry professionals are analyzed to demonstrate the need for such an international double degree program. Results provide a template for replication by other institutions and identify potential future research.
Parisa Alaei, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Zahra Fakhari, Shiva Komesh and Jan Dommerholt
Context: Hamstring muscle tightness is one of the most common problems in athletic and healthy people. Dry needling (DN) was found to be an effective approach for improving muscle flexibility, but there is no study to compare this approach with static stretching (SS) as a common technique for the increase of muscle length. Objective: To compare the immediate effects of DN and SS on hamstring flexibility in healthy subjects with hamstring tightness. Study Design: A single-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: A musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinic at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Subjects: Forty healthy subjects (female: 32, age range: 18–40 y) with hamstring tightness were randomly assigned into 2 groups of DN and SS. Intervention: The DN group received a single session of DN on 3 points of the hamstring muscles, each for 1 minute. The SS group received a single session of SS of the hamstrings, consisting of 3 sets of 30-second SS with a 10-second rest between sets in the active knee extension test (AKET) position. Main Outcome Measures: The AKET, muscle compliance, passive peak torque, and stretch tolerance were measured at the baseline, immediately, and 15 minutes after the interventions. Results: Improvements in all outcomes was better for the DN group than for the SS group. DN increased muscle compliance significantly 15 minutes after the intervention, but it did not improve in the SS group. Conclusion: DN is effective in improving hamstring flexibility compared with SS. One session of DN can be an effective treatment for hamstring tightness and increase hamstring flexibility. The improvements suggest that DN is a novel treatment for hamstring flexibility.
Katherine L. Helly, Katherine A. Bain, Phillip A. Gribble and Matthew C. Hoch
Clinical Scenario: Patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) demonstrate deficits in both sensory and motor function, which can be objectively evaluated through static postural control testing. One intervention that has been suggested to improve somatosensation and, in turn, static postural control is plantar massage. Clinical Question: Does plantar massage improve static postural control during single-limb stance in patients with CAI relative to baseline? Summary of Key Findings: A search was performed for articles exploring the effect of plantar massage on static postural control in individuals with CAI. Three articles were included in this critically appraised topic including 1 randomized controlled trial and 2 crossover studies. All studies supported the use of plantar massage to improve static postural control in patients with CAI. Clinical Bottom Line: There is currently good-quality and consistent evidence that supports the use of plantar massage as an intervention that targets the somatosensory system to improve static postural control in patients with CAI. Future research should focus on incorporating plantar massage as a treatment intervention during long-term rehabilitation protocols for individuals with CAI. Strength of Recommendation: In agreement with the Center of Evidence-Based Medicine, the consistent results from 2 crossover studies and 1 randomized controlled trial designate that there is level B evidence due to consistent, moderate- to high-quality evidence.