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Sunwoo Lee

The current study examined how a perceived neighborhood environment was associated with older adults’ walking activity and the experience of positive affect. Study sample comprised 10,700 older adults, aged 65+, sampled from the Health and Retirement Study 2014–2015 in the United States. Results indicated that neighborhood social cohesion was significantly predicting older adults’ walking and positive affect. It was also revealed that walking engagement significantly contributed to the measure of positive affect. However, perceived neighborhood physical disorder did not account for additional variance in walking and positive affect. Final structural model involved three latent factors—neighborhood social cohesion, walking, and positive affect—and the goodness-of-fit indices of the model indicated an acceptable fit to the sample data. Public health and physical activity intervention in the context of neighborhood environment should facilitate social integration and informal social support that the neighborhood creates.

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Sophie E. Claudel, Kosuke Tamura, James Troendle, Marcus R. Andrews, Joniqua N. Ceasar, Valerie M. Mitchell, Nithya Vijayakumar and Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley

There is no established method for processing data from commercially available physical activity trackers. This study aims to develop a standardized approach to defining valid wear time for use in future interventions and analyses. Sixteen African American women (mean age = 62.1 years and mean body mass index = 35.5 kg/m2) wore the Fitbit Charge 2 for 20 days. Method 1 defined a valid day as ≥10-hr wear time with heart rate data. Method 2 removed minutes without heart rate data, minutes with heart rate  ≤ mean − 2 SDs below mean and ≤2 steps, and nighttime. Linear regression modeled steps per day per week change. Using Method 1 (n = 292 person-days), participants had 20.5 (SD = 4.3) hr wear time per day compared with 16.3 (SD = 2.2) hr using Method 2 (n = 282) (p < .0001). With Method 1, participants took 7,436 (SD = 3,543) steps per day compared with 7,298 (SD = 3,501) steps per day with Method 2 (p = .64). The proposed algorithm represents a novel approach to standardizing data generated by physical activity trackers. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of physical activity data sets.

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David Cassilo and Danielle Sarver Coombs

The Pakistan Super League launched in 2016 with massive enthusiasm in its “cricket-mad” nation. However, safety concerns stemming from a 2009 terrorist attack in Lahore, Pakistan, meant all matches were played in the United Arab Emirates until the tournament’s final game in 2017—the ultimate test in seeing if top-level cricket could return to Pakistan. In this study, the authors examine framing of the creation in 2013 and first 2 years of the Pakistan Super League from news sources in Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom. This study offers an opportunity to understand how Middle Eastern sport and the sport’s connection to national identity are framed in the media across multiple countries during a pivotal time for cricket in Pakistan.

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International Sport Coaching Journal

DIGEST VOLUME 8, ISSUE #1

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Kelly Sarmiento, Dana Waltzman, Kelley Borradaile, Andrew Hurwitz, Kara Conroy and Jaimie Grazi

Due in part to concern about the potential long-term effects of concussion and repetitive head injuries in football, some programs have implemented tackling interventions. This paper explores youth football coaches’ perception of football safety and their experiences implementing these interventions aimed at athlete safety. Using a qualitative approach, coaches were interviewed by means of a semi-structured protocol that covered: (a) demographics; (b) background and experiences with contact sports; (c) perceived concussion risks and benefits of youth football; (d) experiences with tackling technique; (e) experiences with mouth guard sensors; and (f) personal sources of training related to football safety. Most coaches felt that learning tackling at a young age helped prepare them for their playing later in life and believed that youth should begin playing tackle football at a young age. Coaches were mixed regarding their concerns about the risk for concussion and subconcussive head impacts. Still, most were receptive to changes in rules and policies aimed at making football safer. Findings from this study demonstrate that youth football coaches are important stakeholders to consider when implementing changes to youth football. Understanding coach perceptions and experiences may inform future efforts aimed to educate coaches on rules and policies to make the game safer for youth athletes.

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Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Julia O. Totosy de Zepetnek, Mhairi Keil, Katherine Brooke-Wavell and Alan M. Batterham

Purpose: To evaluate the tracking of within-athlete changes in criterion measures of whole-body fat percentage (BF%; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) with skinfold thickness (Σ 4, 6, or 8) in wheelchair basketball players. Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived whole BF% and Σ 4, 6, or 8 skinfolds were obtained at 5 time points over 15 months (N = 16). A linear mixed model with restricted maximum likelihood (random intercept, with identity covariance structure) to derive the within-athlete prediction error for predicting criterion BF% from Σ skinfolds was used. This prediction error allowed us to evaluate how well a simple measure of the Σ skinfolds could track criterion changes in BF %; that is, the authors derived the change in Σ skinfolds that would have to be observed in an individual athlete to conclude that a substantial change in criterion BF% had occurred. Data were log-transformed prior to analysis. Results: The Σ 8 skinfolds was the most precise practical measure for tracking changes in BF%. For the monitoring of an individual player, a change in Σ 8 skinfolds by a factor of greater than 1.28 (multiply or divide by 1.28) is associated with a practically meaningful change in BF% (≥1 percentage point). Conclusions: The Σ 8 skinfolds can track changes in BF% within individuals with reasonable precision, providing a useful field monitoring tool in the absence of often impractical criterion measures.

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Curtis S. Goss, Joel T. Greenshields, Chris L. Brammer, Kosuke Kojima, Brian V. Wright, Robert F. Chapman and Joel M. Stager

Purpose: To describe the heart-rate (HR) response during a prolonged, submaximal, multirepetition swimming bout (ie, typical early-season swimming training), as there is currently little or no literature on this topic. Methods: A total of 12 collegiate swimmers were instructed to complete sixty 91.4-m (100-yd) freestyle repetitions at their fastest sustainable pace, allowing between 5 and 10 seconds of rest between repetitions. Each swimmer was outfitted with a cardiotachometer, which monitored HR throughout the trial. Completion time (CT) was also recorded for each repetition. Individual means of HR and CT were calculated, and linear mixed models were used to determine the trend across repetitions and between- and within-subject SD for HR and CT. Results: The mean (SD) value for HR was 167.8 (10.8) beats per minute (bpm), for CT was 68.7 (4.1) seconds, and for percentage of best time was 71.2% (4.5%). There was no change (Δ rep 55–6) in HR (−0.1 bpm; 95% confidence interval, −6.8 to 6.6 bpm; P = .97), whereas CT increased (3.0 s; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–4.4 s; P = .001). The between-subjects SD (95% confidence interval) for HR was 12.6 (8.4–19.3 bpm) and for CT was 4.6 (3.1–7.0 s). The within-subject SDs for HR and CT were 4.0 (3.8–4.3 bpm) and 0.9 (0.8–0.95 s), respectively. Conclusions: The inherent individual variability between swimmers in HR during training suggests that coaches carefully consider the common practice of prescribing workout intensity using rigid HR zones.

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Chantelle Zimmer and Janice Causgrove Dunn

Teachers can create supportive conditions in physical education to mitigate experiences of stress for children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD); however, most are unfamiliar with DCD and lack adequate training to instruct children with impairments. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ perceptions of and interactions in physical education with children thought to demonstrate functional difficulties associated with DCD. A semistructured interview was conducted with 12 teachers across all elementary years with diverse backgrounds and thematically analyzed. Four themes were produced. Teachers (a) had differing views on the etiology of children’s movement difficulties, though (b) all recognized a range of difficulties children demonstrated. They (c) believed it was their role to facilitate positive experiences for these children in physical education but (d) experienced challenges in doing so. Training that increases teachers’ knowledge of and abilities to address the needs of children thought to have DCD is warranted.

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Vincent G. Kelly, Liam S. Oliver, Joanna Bowtell and David G. Jenkins

Professional rugby league (RL) football is a contact sport involving repeated collisions and high-intensity efforts; both training and competition involve high energy expenditure. The present review summarizes and critiques the available literature relating the physiological demands of RL to nutritional requirements and considers potential ergogenic supplements that could improve players’ physical capacity, health, and recovery during the preparatory and competition phases of a season. Although there may not be enough data to provide RL-specific recommendations, the available data suggest that players may require approximately 6–8 g·kg−1·day−1 carbohydrate, 1.6–2.6 g·kg−1·day−1 protein, and 0.7–2.2 g·kg−1·day−1 fat, provided that the latter also falls within 20–35% of total energy intake. Competition nutrition should maximize glycogen availability by consuming 1–4 g/kg carbohydrate (∼80–320 g) plus 0.25 g/kg (∼20–30 g) protein, 1–4 hr preexercise for 80–120 kg players. Carbohydrate intakes of approximately 80–180 g (1.0–1.5 g/kg) plus 20–67 g protein (0.25–0.55 g/kg) 0–2 hr postexercise will optimize glycogen resynthesis and muscle protein synthesis. Supplements that potentially improve performance, recovery, and adaptation include low to moderate dosages of caffeine (3–6 mg/kg) and ∼300 mg polyphenols consumed ∼1 hr preexercise, creatine monohydrate “loading” (0.3 g·kg−1·day−1) and/or maintenance (3–5 g/day), and beta-alanine (65–80 mg·kg−1·day−1). Future research should quantify energy expenditures in young, professional male RL players before constructing recommendations.

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Rasmus T. Larsen, Christoffer B. Korfitsen, Carsten B. Juhl, Henning Boje Andersen, Henning Langberg and Jan Christensen

Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short form (IPAQ-SF) and the Nordic Physical Activity Questionnaire-short (NPAQ-short) when compared with objectively measured daily steps among older adults. Methods: Spearman’s ρ between IPAQ-SF and NPAQ-short and objectively measured steps using Garmin Vivofit 3 physical activity monitors. Results: A total of 54 participants were included. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ moderate physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and sedentary time showed little or no correlation with daily steps. The NPAQ-short subscales’ vigorous PA, moderate PA, and MVPA showed little or no correlation. The IPAQ-SF subscales’ vigorous PA and walking showed fair correlation. Only the IPAQ-SF metabolic equivalent of task minutes showed moderate to good correlation with daily steps. The IPAQ-SF categories and NPAQ-short categorization of World Health Organization compliance were significantly different, but the magnitudes were small and distributions indicated problems with the categorization. Conclusion: The concurrent validity is low, as the scores did not reflect objectively measured daily steps.