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Meredith J. Luttrell, Benjamin R. Mardis, Joshua M. Bock, Erika Iwamoto, Satoshi Hanada, Kenichi Ueda, Andrew J. Feider, Kenzie Temperly and Darren Casey

The balance of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiostatic factors, like thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and endostatin, controls striated muscle angiogenic responses to exercise training. The effect of age on circulating levels of these factors following a bout of exercise is unclear. The authors hypothesized that older adults would have lower circulating VEGF but higher TSP-1 and endostatin after exercise compared with young adults. Ten young and nine older participants cycled for 45 min at 60% estimated HRmax. Serum [VEGF], [TSP-1], and [endostatin] obtained before (PREX), immediately after (POSTX0), and 3 hr after (POSTX3) exercise were analyzed. [VEGF] increased in older adults only from PREX to POSTX0 (p < .05). [TSP-1] increased in both age groups (p < .05). There was no effect of age or exercise on [endostatin]. In conclusion, immediately after exercise, both groups had a similar increase in [TSP-1], but [VEGF] increased in older adults only.

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Beatriz Caruso Soares, Jéssica Maria Ribeiro Bacha, Daniel Donadio Mello, Emerson Galves Moretto, Tatiana Fonseca, Karina Santos Vieira, Amanda Franchi de Lima, Belinda Lange, Camila Torriani-Pasin, Roseli de Deus Lopes and José Eduardo Pompeu

Objective: To analyze the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of immersive virtual tasks. Methods: The authors recruited 11 young adults and 10 older adults. The participants performed three virtual reaching tasks while walking on a virtual path. The descriptive analysis and comparison between participants were performed using the Mann–Whitney U test and chi-square test for nonparametric and nominal variables, respectively. The authors also used analysis of variance for a between-groups comparison for normal variables. Results: Twenty percent of older adults and 81.8% of young adults completed all three tasks (chi-square test; p = .005). Both groups reported minor symptoms, with no significant differences. The older adults were more motivated to practice the tasks (Mann–Whitney U test; p = .015) and would be more likely to suggest them to others (chi-square test; p = .034). Conclusion: All three tasks were feasible for young adults. All participants, except for one, had cybersickness. The symptoms were mostly mild and subsided once the interaction was complete.

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Evelyne Felber Charbonneau, Martin Camiré and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre

Coaching is a global profession and coaches play a central role in enhancing the performance of millions of athletes worldwide. In the 21st century, the global mobility of coaches has increased, with many coaches taking advantage of opportunities to coach abroad. Norway leads the all-time Winter Olympics medals table (i.e., 368 medals), and with most of these medals coming from skiing disciplines, Norway represents a skiing hotbed that attracts ski coaches from other parts of the world. The purpose of the study was to examine ski coaches’ motives for and experiences of expatriation to coach in Norway. Five North American alpine ski coaches (four males and one female) were individually interviewed (M = 77 min, SD = 24.94), with the data examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Motives for expatriation included having a passion for skiing, challenging oneself, experiencing a new sport culture, and maintaining relationships. Upon arriving in Norway, coaches mentioned experiencing challenges with the Norwegian sport system, language, pressure from parents and the media, and being far from friends and family. Once acclimated, coaches discussed the benefits of expatriation that included the Norwegian work ethic, family-centric lifestyle, and popularity of skiing.

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Bruno de Souza Moreira, Amanda Cristina de Souza Andrade, Luciana de Souza Braga, Alessandra de Carvalho Bastone, Juliana Lustosa Torres, Maria Fernanda Furtado Lima-Costa and Waleska Teixeira Caiaffa

The study goal was to examine the association between perceived neighborhood characteristics and walking in urban older adults in Brazil. A cross-sectional study including 4,027 older adults from the baseline of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) was performed. Walking was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Neighborhood characteristics were questions about physical disorder, noise pollution, safety, violence, social cohesion, services, concerns with community mobility, and pleasantness. Multinomial logistic regression was used. Concern about taking the bus, subway, or train was inversely associated with walking for men. Violence (victim of theft, robbery, or had home broken into) and social cohesion (trust in neighbors) were positively and inversely associated with walking for women, respectively. A significant interaction term between social cohesion and number of chronic diseases was observed for women. These findings demonstrate the need for sex-specific interventions and policies to increase the walking levels among older Brazilian adults.

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro and Yasuo Shimizu

This research examines physical activity (PA) parameters among urban-living middle-aged and older Japanese during the Tokyo Olympic build-up period. Population sampling was employed, and an online survey was administered with 4,000 adults across Japan’s five largest cities. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form constituted the main outcome variable, with auxiliary measures of Olympic interest and engagement, readiness for PA behavior change, perceived environmental barriers, and demographic information. Despite interest in the Olympics (>60% moderate–high interest), planned engagement with the event was low (>70% planned passive engagement). Higher levels of interest and planned engagement were both significantly correlated with greater self-reported PA participation (p < .001). Across the sample, the PA levels were in the low–moderate range (990 metabolic equivalent of task-min/week), with significant variations observed by the age-cohort and geographic area (p < .001). Age-cohort and geographic variations were also identified with regard to readiness for PA behavior change and perceived environmental barriers to activity (p < .001). Older age (65 years and above) and host city (Tokyo) residence emerged as correlates of higher levels of PA, greater readiness for behavior change, and fewer reported barriers to participation. These findings have implications for Olympic legacy management and successful transitions from middle age to later life in Japan.

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Daniel Vicentini de Oliveira, Matheus Amarante do Nascimento, Bráulio Henrique Magnani Branco, Rogéria Vicentini de Oliveira, José Roberto Andrade do Nascimento Júnior, Gabriel Lucas Morais Freire and Sônia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the psychological factors that might predict the sedentary behavior of 654 older adults from the South Region of Brazil. The participants were evaluated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire; Mini-Mental State Exam; Geriatric Anxiety Scale; and the scales Geriatric Depression, Purpose in Life, Perceived Stress, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Satisfaction with Life. Data analysis was conducted through Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis (p < .05). No significant (p > .05) correlation was found between the sedentary behavior variables with self-esteem. Multiple regression analysis revealed that psychological variables explained 6% of the variance of sitting time during the week (R 2 = .06; F = 11.546; p < .01). Depression showed a positive prediction (β = −0.10; p = .040), while life satisfaction (β = −0.16; p = .001) and purpose in life (β = −0.10; p = .026) showed negative prediction. Psychological variables predicted only 3% of the variance of sitting time during the weekend (R 2 = .03; F = 5.629; p < .01), showing that life satisfaction had significant (p = .007) and negative (β = −0.13) association. Life satisfaction and purpose in life can be considered protector factors to sedentary behavior, while depression is a potentiating factor.

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Henk Erik Meier, Jörg Hagenah and Malte Jetzke

As Hutchins and Rowe have emphasized, digital plenitude will fundamentally affect sports broadcasting. In particular, niche sports will be confronted with a more difficult media environment in which the chances of being telecast may increase, while the chances of finding an audience are likely to decrease. Therefore, niche sports face the need to further submit to a media logic. The current research is a case study involving an analysis of the 2018 European Championships from a mediatization perspective. While the findings show how aggregation helped to revitalize audience interest, the case study reveals that the future of niche-sport broadcasting is uncertain, because the audience habits that the European Championships exploited are fading.

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Matheus Barbalho, Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Bianca Callegari, Ramon Costa de Lima, Givago da Silva Souza, Anselmo de Athayde Costa e Silva and Victor Silveira Coswig

Background: Jumps are important evaluation tools for muscle strength and power and for interlimb asymmetries. Different jump tests are well related to athletic performance, prediction of injury risk, and common motor gestures of several sports such as soccer. Low-cost mobile applications (apps) have gained popularity for this measure. The authors hypothesized that the My Jump 2 app would be a valid tool to assess drop-jump performance and interlimb asymmetry in soccer players. Methods: Eleven male soccer players took part in this study (18.2 [1.3] y, 69.9 [9.5] kg, 174 [6.6] cm). The athletes performed each test twice on a force plate (gold-standard method), while the jumps were recorded through the mobile app. Measures with the My Jump 2 app were applied by 2 evaluators, independently and in duplicate (interrater and intrarater reliability). The agreement analysis between both evaluations was done using an intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman plots. Results: Compared with the force platform, the app tested showed excellent reliability for the drop jump’s flight time and interlimb asymmetry (intraclass correlation coefficient > .98). For interlimb contact-time asymmetry, the values were 18.4 (9.9) and 19.1 (9.9) milliseconds for the My Jump 2 app and the force platform, respectively (P = .88). For flight-time asymmetries, the values were 389.7 (114.3) and 396.8 (112.5) milliseconds for the My Jump 2 app and the force platform, respectively (P = .88). Conclusion: The My Jump 2 app is a valid tool to assess drop-jump and interlimb asymmetry in soccer players.

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José Oliveira-Santos, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, César Agostinis-Sobrinho and Jorge Mota

Background: To explore the associations between birth weight and body mass index (BMI) from 6 months to 6 years of age, with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), physical activity, and sedentary time in adolescence. Methods: Retrospective school-based study with 539 adolescents (292 girls), mean age of 13.94 (1.62) years. Anthropometric data from birth up to 6 years were extracted from individual child health booklets. CRF was estimated by 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed with accelerometers. Results: Birth weight was not associated with any outcome measured in adolescence. From the age of 6 months onwards in girls, and from 3 years in boys, BMI associated inversely with CRF in adolescence. In girls, BMI (at 12 mo and at 3 y of age) associated positively with sedentary time in adolescence, but not with physical activity. In boys, positive associations between BMI at the ages of 3, 5, and 6 years old and time spent in some intensities of physical activity in adolescence were found. Conclusions: BMI during the early years was negatively associated with CRF in adolescence, in a consistent way, for both genders, but with physical activity and sedentary time the associations were scarce and inconsistent, depending on the gender.

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Devin S. Kielur and Cameron J. Powden

Context: Impaired dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM) has been established as a predictor of lower-extremity injury. Compression tissue flossing (CTF) may address tissue restrictions associated with impaired DFROM; however, a consensus is yet to support these effects. Objectives: To summarize the available literature regarding CTF on DFROM in physically active individuals. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and EBSCOhost (CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus) were searched from 1965 to July 2019 for related articles using combination terms related to CTF and DRFOM. Articles were included if they measured the immediate effects of CTF on DFROM. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. The level of evidence was assessed using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy. The magnitude of CTF effects from pre-CTF to post-CTF and compared with a control of range of motion activities only were examined using Hedges g effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. Randomeffects meta-analysis was performed to synthesize DFROM changes. Evidence Synthesis: A total of 6 studies were included in the analysis. The average Physiotherapy Evidence Database score was 60% (range = 30%–80%) with 4 out of 6 studies considered high quality and 2 as low quality. Meta-analysis indicated no DFROM improvements for CTF compared with range of motion activities only (effect size = 0.124; 95% confidence interval, −0.137 to 0.384; P = .352) and moderate improvements from pre-CTF to post-CTF (effect size = 0.455; 95% confidence interval, 0.022 to 0.889; P = .040). Conclusions: There is grade B evidence to suggest CTF may have no effect on DFROM when compared with a control of range of motion activities only and results in moderate improvements from pre-CTF to post-CTF. This suggests that DFROM improvements were most likely due to exercises completed rather than the band application.