Purpose: To examine the potential impact of fluctuations in sex steroid hormones across the menstrual cycle (MC) on marathon running performance of recreational female athletes. Methods: A survey questionnaire was administered to recreational, nonelite runners who had completed multiple marathons within the last 18 months. Results: A total of 599 questionnaires were returned and deemed viable for review. From these, 185 survey participants were found to have complete information and eligibility to have their surveys used in the statistical analysis. A total of 106 women had their best marathon performance in the luteal phase (high sex steroid hormones) of the MC, and 79 had their best performance in the follicular phase (low sex steroid hormones) of the MC (responses were significantly different; z-score value = 1.11; P < .05). Conclusion: Recreational female runners have varying performances in the marathon across their MC phases, specifically performing better in the luteal phase of the cycle.
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M. Greenhall, R.S. Taipale, J.K. Ihalainen and A.C. Hackney
Mehdi Kordi, Martin Evans and Glyn Howatson
Purpose: Peak power output (PPO) is a determinant of sprint cycling performance and can be enhanced by resistance exercise that targets maximum strength. Conventional resistance training is not always suitable for elite cyclists because of chronic spinal issues; therefore, alternative methods to improve strength that concurrently reduce injury risk are welcome. In this case study, quasi-isometric cycling (QIC), a novel task-specific resistance-training method designed to improve PPO without the use of transitional resistance training, was investigated. Methods: A highly trained sprint track cyclist (10.401 s for 200 m) completed a 5-week training block followed by a second 5-week block that replaced conventional resistance training with the novel QIC training method. The replacement training method required the cyclist to maximally drive the crank of a modified cycle ergometer for 5 seconds as it passed through a ∼100° range (starting at 45° from top dead center) at a constant angular velocity. Each session consisted of 3 sets of 6 repetitions on each leg. The lab PPO was recorded in the saddle and out of the saddle. Results: Conventional training did not alter sprinting ability; however, the intervention improved the out-of-the-saddle PPO by 100 W (from 1751 to 1851 W), while the in-the-saddle PPO increased by 57 W from 1671 to 1728 W. Conclusion: QIC increased PPO in a highly trained, national-level sprint cyclist, which could be translated to improvements in performance on the track. Furthermore, QIC provides a simple, but nonetheless effective, alternative for sprint track cyclists who have compromised function to perform traditional strength training.
Kevin G. Aubol, Jillian L. Hawkins and Clare E. Milner
Measurements of tibial acceleration during running must be reliable to ensure valid results and reduce errors. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and minimal detectable difference (MDD) of peak axial and peak resultant tibial acceleration during overground and treadmill running. The authors also compared reliability and MDDs when peak tibial accelerations were determined by averaging 5 or 10 trials. Tibial acceleration was measured during overground and treadmill running of 19 participants using a lightweight accelerometer mounted to the tibia. Peak axial and peak resultant tibial accelerations were determined for each trial. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined within-session reliability, and MDDs were also calculated. Within-session reliability was excellent for all conditions (intraclass correlation coefficients = .95–.99). The MDDs ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 g for peak axial acceleration and from 1.6 to 2.0 g for peak resultant acceleration and were lowest for peak axial tibial acceleration during overground running. Averaging 10 trials did not improve reliability compared to averaging 5 trials but did result in small reductions in MDDs. For peak axial tibial acceleration only, lower MDDs indicate that overground running may be the better option for detecting small differences.
Bora Jin and Idethia Shevon Harvey
This review aims to understand how age-related stereotypes against older adults’ physical capabilities influence their ability to engage in regular physical activity. The authors wanted to know how people construe ageism in the fitness and health arena, how ageism manifests in this field, and how ageism influences older adults’ learning and practicing physical activity. Data was extracted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis. Twenty-two empirical studies met the selection criteria. The findings revealed that the attributes of ageism fell into either self-imposed or other-directed ageism categories and manifested as implicit or explicit ageism. The study also identified the following four themes: (a) perceptions of aging and exercise, (b) exercise motivation, (c) opportunities for older adults, and (d) ambiguous positionality as older exercisers. The research provides evidence for the existence of ageism against older exercisers. Further research considering the implication of ageism within the exercising industry is necessary.
This article offers a consideration of physical activity within the contexts of social movement philosophies, decision making, strategies, and tactics through an examination of the 1986 Great Peace March for Global Nuclear Disarmament. Drawing from interviews with twenty activists on the Great Peace March, the author argues that physicality and endurance actions—literally, but also symbolically—signify particular meanings of movement for social movements, such as persistence, focus, and determination, to stretch sociopolitical limits and boundaries. Participants endeavor to accomplish difficult physical challenges and maintain the solidarity of their communities to analogize the coming into existence of equally extraordinary visions of social or political transformation. Physical and symbolic expressions of what the author terms “endurance activism” sustained the marchers’ vision of community and the survival of their organization. The article encourages sport historians to use a wider framework to interpret the links between physical activity, social activism, and oppositional movements.
MacIntosh Ross and Kevin B. Wamsley
On July 27, 1859, “Canada” Kate Clark met two Americans, Nellie Stem and Mary Dwyer, for a pair of prize fights in Fort Erie, Canada West. Beginning their adventure in Buffalo, New York, they rowed their way across the Niagara River to the fighting grounds in the British colony. Like pugilists before them, they stripped to the waist to limit potential grappling in battle. Both the journey and pre-fight fight preparations were tried and true components of mid-nineteenth century prize fighting. Although the press, and later historians, overwhelmingly associated such performances with male combatants, women were indeed active in Canadian pugilistic circles, settling scores, testing their mettle, and displaying their fistic abilities both pre- and post-Confederation. In this article, we begin to untangle the various threads of female pugilism, situating these athletes and performers within the broader literature on both boxing and women's sport in Canada. By examining media reports of female boxers—both in sparring and prize fighting—we hope to provide a historiographic foundation for further discussions of early female pugilism, highlighting the various ways these women upheld and challenged the notion of the “new woman” in Canada.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
Purpose: This study investigated the benefits and challenges described by physical educators who had actively used social media professionally for an average of more than 6 years. Method: The data were collected through semistructured individual and focus group interviews, with an international sample of physical educators (N = 48). The data were analyzed through an open coding process to develop themes. Results: Diverse benefits and challenges associated with social media use were identified and organized in alignment with a social ecological model. The benefits included enhanced knowledge, skills, teaching, student learning, and access to professional community. The challenges included managing the quantity of available content, the risks of context collapse, and navigating the cultures and discourse of online spaces. Discussion: A deeper understanding of the benefits and challenges of physical educators’ social media use can enable stakeholders to act in more strategic ways as they navigate the promise and the peril of social media.
Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey
This chapter compares and contrasts the findings of the preceding empirical monograph chapters. The findings from these chapters are addressed in terms of how they illustrate the positives, negatives, and tensions that can be associated with social media use for professional development and learning. Across the various chapters, similarities in findings as well as apparent contradictions are discussed. By illuminating the potential and the perils of social media use and misuse, a pragmatic summary of the findings can inform wise use and nonuse of social media for professional development and learning by those involved in the field of physical education and sport pedagogy. Although prior literature and this monograph have begun to address some aspects of social media use in physical education and sport pedagogy, much remains to be explored. Topics, social media tools, methods, and theory that could be taken up or expanded upon in future research to advance the field are suggested.
Matthew C. Hoch, Johanna M. Hoch, Cameron J. Powden, Emily H. Gabriel and Lauren A. Welsch
Background: The anterior reach distance and symmetry of the Y-Balance Test (YBT) has been associated with increased injury risk in collegiate athletes. Examining the influence of dorsiflexion range of motion (DROM) and single-limb balance (SLB) on YBT performance may identify underlying factors associated with injury risk. Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine if YBT anterior reach is related to DROM or SLB in collegiate varsity and club sport athletes. Methods: A convenience sample of 124 university varsity and club sport athletes (females: 99, age: 20.0 ± 1.6 years, height: 168.9 ± 12.5 kg, body mass: 68.8 ± 14.0 kg) completed the anterior direction of the YBT, weight-bearing DROM, and SLB components (firm and foam surface) of the Balance Error Scoring System on both limbs at one testing session. Relative symmetry was calculated by subtracting values of the left limb from the right limb. Results: For the left and right limb, normalized anterior reach distance was moderately correlated to DROM (R = .55, p < .001). Anterior reach distance and symmetry was weakly correlated to SLB and SLB symmetry (R = −.16 to −.03). Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between YBT anterior reach and weight-bearing DROM which was also observed in the between-limb symmetry. However, weak relationships were exhibited between YBT anterior reach and SLB. These findings may be useful for future injury prevention initiatives in athletic settings.
Landy Di Lu and Kathryn L. Heinze
New sport policies often prompt organizations in the field to alter their structures and processes. Little is known, however, about the tactics of those leading institutional change around sport policy. To address this gap, the authors draw on the concept of institutional entrepreneurship—the activities of actors who leverage resources to create institutional change. Using a qualitative case study approach, the authors examine how two coalitions that served as institutional entrepreneurs in Washington and Oregon created and passed the first youth sport concussion legislation in the United States. The analysis of this study reveals that these coalitions (including victims’ families, sport organizations, advocacy groups, and concussion specialists) engaged in political, technical, and cultural activities through the use of specific tactics that allowed them to harness expertise and resources and generate support for the legislation. Furthermore, the findings of this study suggest a sequencing to these activities, captured in a model of institutional entrepreneurship around sport policy.