Geoffrey M. Hudson and Kyle Sprow
Jerraco L. Johnson, Peter A. Hastie, Mary E. Rudisill and Danielle Wadsworth
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which preschool boys’ and girls’ gender and skill level relate to their throwing practice behaviors during a mastery motivational climate intervention. Fifty-four preschool children (24 boys, 30 girls) participated in a 7-week FMS intervention. Children’s practice behaviors (number of visits, total time, and total trials) at the overhand throwing station were video recorded during each session. A series of unpaired Welch assessments were run to determine if there were differences in practice behaviors across the intervention based on gender and initial skill level. Results indicated significant differences in practice time and trials based on gender and skill level, but no differences in the number of visits. It appears that throwing gender stereotypes perhaps may be related to practice behaviors for young children. Interventions should consider ways to make throwing more enticing for young girls and less skilled children to encourage practice and enhance learning.
Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez and Carlos Ayán
Background: Nordic walking (NW) is a potentially beneficial exercise strategy for overweight and obese people. To date, no reviews have synthesized the existing scientific evidence regarding the effects of NW on this population. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify the characteristics, methodological quality, and results of the investigations that have studied the effects of NW in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: Six electronic databases were searched up to June 2019 for studies that examined the effects of NW on people with a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. The methodological quality of the included randomized controlled trials was retrieved from the physiotherapy evidence database or evaluated using the physiotherapy evidence database scale. Results: Twelve studies were included in the review. The investigations were mostly good-to-fair methodological quality. NW groups had a significant improvement on parameters such as fasting plasma glucose, abdominal adiposity, and body fat compared with the baseline, but no significant improvements were found when compared with control groups. Conclusions: NW can potentially lead to improvements in parameters related to major health outcomes in overweight and obese people. The lack of control for confounding variables in the analyzed studies prevents further elaboration on its potential benefits.
Vincent Shieh, Ashwini Sansare, Minal Jain, Thomas Bulea, Martina Mancini and Cris Zampieri
Aims: Clinical evaluation of balance has relied on forceplate systems as the gold standard for postural sway measures. Recently, systems based on wireless inertial sensors have been explored, mostly in the adult population, as an alternative given their practicality and lower cost. Our goal was to validate body-worn sensors against forceplate balance measures in typically developing children during tests of quiet stance. Methods: 18 participants (8 males) 7 to 17 years old performed a quiet stance test standing on a forceplate while wearing 3 inertial sensors. Three 30-second trials were performed under 4 conditions: firm surface with eyes open and closed, and foam surface with eyes open and closed. Sway area, path length, and sway velocity were calculated. Results: We found 20 significant and 8 non-significant correlations. Variables found to be significant were represented across all conditions, except for the foam eyes closed condition. Conclusions: These results support the validity of wearable sensors in measuring postural sway in children. Inertial sensors may represent a viable alternative to the gold standard forceplate to test static balance in children.
Christina Zong-Hao Ma, Wing-Kai Lam, Bao-Chi Chang and Winson Chiu-Chun Lee
This systematic review investigated the effects of orthopedic, vibrating, and textured insoles on the postural balance of community-dwelling older adults. Articles published in English from 1999 to 2019 investigating the effects of (a) orthopedic, (b) vibrating, and (c) textured insoles on static and dynamic balance in community-dwelling older adults were considered. Twenty-four trials with a total of 634 older adults were identified. The information gathered generally supported the balance-improving effects of orthopedic, vibrating, and textured insoles in both static and dynamic conditions among community-dwelling older adults. Further examination found that rigidity, texture patterns, vibration thresholds, and components like arch supports and heel cups are important factors in determining whether insoles can improve balance. This review highlights the potential of insoles for improving the static and dynamic balance of community-dwelling older adults. Good knowledge in insole designs and an understanding of medical conditions of older adults are required when attempts are made to improve postural balance using insoles.
Dereck L. Salisbury and Fang Yu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among peak exercise parameters on 6-min walk test, shuttle walk test, and laboratory-based cardiopulmonary exercise testing in persons with Alzheimer’s dementia. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 90 participants (age 77.1 [6.6] years, 43% female) from the FIT-AD trial. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing produced significantly higher peak heart rate (118.6 [17.5] vs. 106 [22.8] vs. 106 [18.8] beats/min), rating of perceived exertion (16 [2.1] vs. 12 [2.3] vs. 11 [2.1]), and systolic blood pressure (182 [23.7] vs. 156 [18.9] vs. 150 [16.9] mmHg) compared with the shuttle walk test and 6-min walk test, respectively. Peak walking distance on shuttle walk test (241.3 [127.3] m) and 6-min walk test (365.0 [107.9] m) significantly correlated with peak oxygen consumption (17.1 [4.3] ml·kg−1·min−1) on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (r = .449, p ≤ .001 and r = .435, p ≤ .001), respectively, which is considerably lower than what is seen in older adults and persons with cardiopulmonary diseases.
Mariane F.B. Bacelar, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller
It is unknown whether rewards improve the capability to select appropriate targets for one’s movement (action selection) and/or the movement itself (action execution). Thus, we devised an experimental task wherein participants categorized a complex visual stimulus to determine toward which one of two targets to execute an action (putt a golf ball) on each trial under one of three conditions: reward, punishment, or neutral. After practicing the task under their assigned condition, participants performed an immediate, 24-hr, and 7-day post-test. Results revealed participants putted to the correct target more frequently during the post-tests than the first practice block, and putted more accurately during the post-tests than a pretest. However, the condition in which participants practiced did not moderate post-test performance (for either task component). Additionally, motivation scores explained action selection and action execution for the immediate post-test performance but not long-term retention, suggesting that motivation might be related to immediate performance, but not long-term learning. Further, the present task may be useful for researchers studying action selection and execution, since the task yielded learning effects that could be moderated by factors of interest.
Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Antonio J. Molina, Vicente Martin, Tania Fernández-Villa, Jose M. Cancela and Carlos Ayan
This study aimed to determine if stretching exercise can be implemented as an adequate control therapy in exercise randomized controlled trials aimed at improving physical fitness and physical function in older adults. Five electronic databases were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials focused in the physical fitness and function of older adults using stretching exercise as control group. The methodological quality was assessed and a meta-analysis was carried out. Sixteen studies were included, 13 in the meta-analysis. The methodological quality ranged from fair to good. The meta-analysis only in the controls resulted in significant improvements in different functional parameters related to walking, balance, knee flexion strength, or global physical function. The interventions, compared with the controls, significantly improved balance and knee strength parameters. Stretching exercise as control therapy in older people can lead to beneficial effects and could influence the interpretation of the effect size in the intervention groups.
Kirsten Ward, Anne Pousette and Chelsea A. Pelletier
Although the benefits of maintaining a physical activity regime for older adults are well known, it is unclear how programs and facilities can best support long-term participation. The purpose of this study is to determine the facilitating factors of physical activity maintenance in older adults at individual, program, and community levels. Nine semistructured interviews were conducted with individuals aged 60 years and older and long-term participants (>6 months) in community-based group exercise at a clinical wellness facility in northern British Columbia, Canada. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Themes identified as facilitators of physical activity included (a) social connections, (b) individual contextual factors, and (c) healthy aging. Older adults are more likely to maintain physical activity when environments foster healthy aging and provide opportunity for social engagement.
Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr and Jennifer B. McClure
Background: The authors tested the efficacy of the “I-STAND” intervention for reducing sitting time, a novel and potentially health-promoting approach, in older adults with obesity. Methods: The authors recruited 60 people (mean age = 68 ± 4.9 years, 68% female, 86% White; mean body mass index = 35.4). The participants were randomized to receive the I-STAND sitting reduction intervention (n = 29) or healthy living control group (n = 31) for 12 weeks. At baseline and at 12 weeks, the participants wore activPAL devices to assess sitting time (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included fasting glucose, blood pressure, and weight. Linear regression models assessed between-group differences in the outcomes. Results: The I-STAND participants significantly reduced their sitting time compared with the controls (–58 min per day; 95% confidence interval [–100.3, –15.6]; p = .007). There were no statistically significant changes in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: I-STAND was efficacious in reducing sitting time, but not in changing health outcomes in older adults with obesity.