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Guneet Chawla, Madelon Hoppe, Nina Browner and Michael D. Lewek

The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in spatiotemporal gait measures induced by stepping to the beat of a metronome and to music cues of various frequencies in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Twenty-one participants with Parkinson’s disease were instructed to time their steps to a metronome and music cues (at 85%, 100%, and 115% of overground cadence). The authors calculated cadence, cadence accuracy, and step length during each cue condition and an uncued control condition. The music and metronome cues produced comparable results in cadence manipulation, with reduced cadence accuracy noted at slower intended frequencies. Nevertheless, the induced cadence elicited a concomitant alteration in step length. The music and metronome cues produced comparable changes to gait, but suggest that temporal control is more limited at slower frequencies, presumably by the challenge of increasing the step length.

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Figen Govsa, Gkionoul Nteli Chatzioglou, Simin Hepguler, Yelda Pinar and Ozden Bedre

Objective: This study examines the effect of the lower limb misalignment and its possible compensatory effect on plantar pressure in a normal population. The aim of this paper is to present a structured method for the analysis of posture and its changes using a standardized digital photography technique and plantar pressure measuring device. Design: Cohort. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: A total of 200 adult volunteers between 18 and 22 years of age who had no current symptoms of pain and foot or ankle pathology participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: The gold standard measure of lower limb alignment with weight-bearing status is the mechanical axis and their angles using Image J software. Structural and functional measurements of the same foot were taken using a plantar pressure measuring device. In this study, 5 alignment (thigh, knee, leg, ankle, and foot) characteristics were measured on the lower limb using the 2 techniques, and, additionally, the foot contact area, peak pressure, foot axis, rearfoot angle, and subtalar joint flexibility score were analyzed in 10 different regions of the foot. Results: This study has shown a reasonable correlation between digitalized measurements and plantar pressures values. Quadriceps angle affected midfoot impulse, foot axis angle, subtalar joint minimum angle, and rearfoot angle positively. Subtalar joint flexibility scores were analyzed in 10 different regions of the foot. There was a positive correlation between rearfoot angle and quadriceps angle (P = .009, r = .261). Results of both methods show that they endorse each other. Conclusions: The posture of the standing feet may have influence on lower limb alignment. Currently, there are no studies carried out by using digital photogrammetry and foot scan. The authors claim that patient-friendly digital photogrammetry would have a positive contribution to the monitoring of patients, even including new ones in the treatment programs, reducing any possible loss in the personal and national economy.

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Sandy J. Slater, Anmol Sanghera, Yadira Herrera and Jamie F. Chriqui

Background: Head Start serves over 1 million diverse low-income preschool children and is an ideal setting for developing and implementing obesity prevention efforts, which is expected to have positive impacts on behavior as youth age. This study examined how regional- and state-level Head Start offices have supported implementation of the recently updated physical activity (PA) requirement within the teaching and learning environment Head Start Program Performance Standard (1302.31). Methods: Key informant telephone interviews were conducted with 8 regional- and 36 state-level Head Start representatives. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Data were coded and analyzed using constant comparative methods in ATLAS.ti (version 8). Audit trails were maintained, and disagreements in codes were discussed and resolved among coders. Results: The following 3 overarching themes emerged: communication, resources and technical assistance, and challenges. Results showed variation in respondent knowledge regarding the Standards. Although regional contacts provide technical assistance, state-level contacts have many information sharing strategies for programs. Implementation challenges included the need for frequent professional development opportunities given staff turnover and low PA competency, and additional PA curricula. Conclusion: Findings can help identify existing or potential strategies that could be adopted more widely or developed to assist Head Start programs incorporate PA into daily activities.

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Sophie E. Carter, Richard Draijer, Andrew Thompson, Dick H.J. Thijssen and Nicola D. Hopkins

Background: Sedentary behavior is negatively associated with cognition and mood. Adults often engage in high levels of sedentary behavior at work through sitting, which may impact productivity. Consequently, replacing sitting with standing and physical activity (PA) is recommended. However, the associations between sitting, standing, and PA at work and cognition and mood are unknown; this study, therefore, aimed to explore these relationships. Methods: A total of 75 healthy full-time workers (33 male, mean [SD]; 33.6 [10.4] y, 38 [7] work hr/wk) wore sedentary behavior (activPAL) and PA (SenseWear Pro) monitors for 7 days and recorded their work hours. The day after this monitoring period, participants completed cognitive tests (executive function, attention, and working memory) and mood questionnaires (affect, alert, content, and calm). Multiple linear regression analyses examined the associations between cognition and mood and the time spent sitting, standing, and in each PA intensity during work hours, weekday leisure time, and weekends. Results: Workplace sitting, standing, or PA were not significantly associated with cognition or mood (P > .05). No significant associations were observed between these variables during weekday leisure time or weekends (P > .05). Conclusions: In a cohort of healthy workers, workplace sitting, standing, and PA are not associated with cognition or mood. Further research in this population is needed, examining the influence of workplace behaviors on cognition and mood, because this will contribute to evidence-based workplace guidelines to increase productivity.

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João Paulo Limongi França Guilherme, Ekaterina A. Semenova, Hirofumi Zempo, Gabriel L. Martins, Antonio H. Lancha Junior, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Hiroshi Kumagai, Takuro Tobina, Keisuke Shiose, Ryo Kakigi, Takamasa Tsuzuki, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Hisashi Naito, Oleg V. Borisov, Elena S. Kostryukova, Nikolay A. Kulemin, Andrey K. Larin, Edward V. Generozov, Noriyuki Fuku and Ildus I. Ahmetov

Purpose: To replicate previous genome-wide association study identified sprint-related polymorphisms in 3 different cohorts of top-level sprinters and to further validate the obtained results in functional studies. Methods: A total of 240 Japanese, 290 Russians, and 593 Brazilians were evaluated in a case-control approach. Of these, 267 were top-level sprint/power athletes. In addition, the relationship between selected polymorphisms and muscle fiber composition was evaluated in 203 Japanese and 287 Finnish individuals. Results: The G allele of the rs3213537 polymorphism was overrepresented in Japanese (odds ratio [OR]: 2.07, P = .024) and Russian (OR: 1.93, P = .027) sprinters compared with endurance athletes and was associated with an increased proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers in Japanese (P = .02) and Finnish (P = .041) individuals. A meta-analysis of the data from 4 athlete cohorts confirmed that the presence of the G/G genotype rather than the G/A+A/A genotypes increased the OR of being a sprinter compared with controls (OR: 1.49, P = .01), endurance athletes (OR: 1.79, P = .001), or controls + endurance athletes (OR: 1.58, P = .002). Furthermore, male sprinters with the G/G genotype were found to have significantly faster personal times in the 100-m dash than those with G/A+A/A genotypes (10.50 [0.26] vs 10.76 [0.31], P = .014). Conclusion: The rs3213537 polymorphism found in the CPNE5 gene was identified as a highly replicable variant associated with sprinting ability and the increased proportion of fast-twitch muscle fibers, in which the homozygous genotype for the major allele (ie, the G/G genotype) is preferable for performance.

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Antonis Kesisoglou, Andrea Nicolò and Louis Passfield

Purpose: To examine the effect of cycling exercise intensity and duration on subsequent performance and to compare the resulting acute performance decrement (APD) with total work done (TWD) and corresponding training-load (TL) metrics. Methods: A total of 14 male cyclists performed a 5-minute time trial (TT) as a baseline and after 4 initial exercise bouts of varying exercise intensity and duration. The initial exercise bouts were performed in a random order and consisted of a 5- and a 20-minute TT and a 20- and a 40-minute submaximal ride. The resulting APD was calculated as the percentage change in 5-minute TT from baseline, and this was compared with the TWD and TL metrics for the corresponding initial exercise bout. Results: Average power output was different for each of the 4 initial exercise bouts (ηp2=.971; P < .001), and all bouts resulted in an APD. But APD was only different when comparing maximal with submaximal bouts (ηp2=.862; P < .001). The APD contradicted TWD and TL metrics and was not different when comparing 5- and 20-minute maximal TTs or the 20- and 40-minute submaximal bouts. In contrast, TL metrics were different for all training sessions (ηp2=.970; P < .001). Conclusion: An APD is found after initial exercise bouts consisting of 5- and 20-minute TTs and after 20- and 40-minute of submaximal exercise that is not consistent with the corresponding values for TWD or TL. This discrepancy highlights important shortcomings when using TWD and TL to compare exercise bouts of different intensity and duration.

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Jon L. Weller

In Alberta, Canada during the 1960s and early 1970s the popularity of recreational paddling expanded considerably. The reasons for this were varied, including wider demographic and economic shifts that produced a population that was both able, with time and the means, and eager to engage in these activities. But at the same time there was a notable change in the material reality of the sport brought on by the development of new construction techniques and materials. The goal of this article is to investigate the changing nature of recreational paddling in the 1960s and 70s with a focus on the influence that changing materials and construction methods had on these processes. Developed for other commercial purposes, fiberglass provided paddlers in Alberta with a means of constructing more robust canoes cheaply, quickly, and with a great deal of customization. To facilitate this construction, paddlers came together to share knowledge, materials, designs, and labor. In turn, these boatbuilding workshops became the nucleus of a budding and ultimately vibrant paddling community in the province. Moreover, the increased durability and design adaptability allowed paddlers to push the limits of the sport and successively redesign and further specialize the boats allowing for even greater skill development.

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Jim Watkins

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Matthew Hodler and Callie Batts Maddox

Miami University has used Native American imagery to promote itself since its founding. In 1929, Miami teams began using the racist term Redsk*ns. In 1996–1997, they changed the name to RedHawks. Despite the strengthening relationship between the university and the tribe, the racist mascot imagery remained visible in the university community. In 2017–2018, the university returned to Native American imagery by unveiling a new “Heritage Logo” to represent a commitment to restoring the Myaamia language and culture. In this paper, the authors used tribal critical race theory to analyze how the Heritage Logo represents a point of interest convergence, where symbols of the tribe signal acceptance and recognition of the Myaamia people, while institutional racism and the possessive investment of whiteness are left ignored and unaddressed.

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Matthew Lamont

Existing conceptualizations of active sport tourism lack an empirical foundation in explaining the processes of embodiment through which active sport tourists engage with destination space. Adopting an autophenomenographic perspective, this paper explores embodiment in the context of a cycling tourism experience encompassing six iconic mountain passes within the French Alps synonymous with the Tour de France. Qualitative data draw attention to kinaesthetic and visceral sensations arising through multisensory feedback, along with affective responses produced as the body traverses venerated sport landscapes. This research highlights mind–body processes that shape mobile, active sport tourism experiences and provides an empirical and conceptual foundation to inform future studies of embodiment in active sport tourism.