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Antonio W.S. Maciel, Leandro M. Pinto, Roberta C.A. Campos, Andressa C. Ferreira, Carlos A.A. Dias-Filho, Carlos J.M. Dias, Flávio de Oliveira Pires, Christiano B. Urtado, Bruno Rodrigues and Cristiano Teixeira Mostarda

Aim: To compare the acute effects of two resistance exercise sessions with different partial blood flow restrictions (BFR) on hemodynamic parameters and cardiac autonomic modulation in older women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Thirty-nine older women (64.4 ± 4.5 years) were allocated into three groups: BFR0 = resistance exercise (20%, 1 maximum repetition [MR]) + 0% BFR; BFR60 = 20% 1 MR resistance exercise + 60% BFR; and BFR80 = 20% 1MR resistance exercise + 80% BFR. Results: A reduction of 14 mmHg (BFR60 group) and 13 mmHg (BRF80 group) was observed 48 hr after the first exercise session, while vagal modulation was increased in the BRF60 group after 24 and 48 hr. Conclusion: A low-intensity resistance exercise session with 60% and 80% of BFR resulted in blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, and mean) reduction and positive changes on heart rate variability after 24 h of a RE session.

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Dorthe Dalstrup Jakobsen, Jasper Schipperijn and Jens Meldgaard Bruun

Background: In Denmark, most children are not sufficiently physically active and only a few interventions have been found to increase long-term physical activity among overweight and obese children. The aim of our study was to investigate if children are physically active in correspondence to Danish recommendations after attending a multicomponent-overnight camp. Methods: A questionnaire was developed to estimate children’s physical activity level and behavior and investigate how transport, economy, availability, time, motivation, and knowledge about physical activity affect children’s physical activity level and behavior. Results: In this study, 60.9% of the children did vigorous physical activity (VPA) minimum 30 minutes 3 times per week up to 3 years after camp. Most children were physically active at a sports club (44.3%) and only 5.7% of the children did not participate in physical activity. Parental physical activity and child motivation toward physical activity were significantly (P < .05) associated with children doing VPA. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 60.9% of children who attended camp engage in VPA after camp, which compared with a recent Danish study, is more frequent than children who did not attend camp. Further investigations are needed to determine the long-term health effects in children attending interventions such as multicomponent-overnight camps.

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Kim Gammage, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork and Svenja Wolf

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Marcelo Gonçalves Duarte, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, Thábata Viviane Brandão Gomes and Rodolfo Novelino Benda

Background: Studies related to the motor performance of children have suggested an interaction between organisms and the environment. Although motor development seems to be similar among people, the behavior is specific to the context that people are part of. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the fundamental motor skill performance between indigenous (IN) and nonindigenous children. Methods: One hundred and thirteen children (43 IN and 70 nonindigenous children) between 8 and 10 years of age underwent the Test of Gross Motor Development—2. Results: A multivariate analysis showed a significant group main effect on both locomotor (p < .01) and object control (p < .01) performance with large and medium effect sizes (ηp2 values = .57–.40, respectively). The IN showed the highest scores for galloping, hopping, leaping, jumping, sliding, striking a stationary ball, stationary dribbling, catching a ball, kicking, and overhand throwing (p < .01) with small to large effect sizes (ηp2 values = .05–.50). Conclusion: The IN presented the highest levels of performance in fundamental motor skills compared with those of nonindigenous children. Most likely, IN have more opportunities for motor development in the environmental context (i.e., villages) where they live.

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Arthur Alves Dos Santos, James Sorce, Alexandra Schonning and Grant Bevill

This study evaluated the performance of 6 commercially available hard hat designs—differentiated by shell design, number of suspension points, and suspension tightening system—in regard to their ability to attenuate accelerations during vertical impacts to the head. Tests were conducted with impactor materials of steel, wood, and lead shot (resembling commonly seen materials in a construction site), weighing 1.8 and 3.6 kg and dropped from 1.83 m onto a Hybrid III head/neck assembly. All hard hats appreciably reduced head acceleration to the unprotected condition. However, neither the addition of extra suspension points nor variations in suspension tightening mechanism appreciably influenced performance. Therefore, these results indicate that additional features available in current hard hat designs do not improve protective capacity as related to head acceleration metrics.

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Kasper Salin, Anna Kankaanpää, Xiaolin Yang, Tuija H. Tammelin, Costan G. Magnussen, Risto Telama, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Jorma S.A. Viikari, Olli T. Raitakari and Mirja Hirvensalo

Background: To examine if major life changes over a 4-year period among 34- to 49-year-old adults (mean = 41.8, SD = 5.0) were associated with a change in physical activity in men (37.7%) and women (62.3%). Methods: Daily steps and aerobic steps (steps that lasted for at least 10 min without interruption at a pace of >60 steps/min) were collected from 1051 participants in 2007 and 2011. Changes in marital status, work status, and residence and the birth of a child were determined from both time points. A latent change score model was used to examine mean changes in daily total steps, aerobic steps, and nonaerobic steps (total steps minus aerobic steps). Results: Women who had a first child in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .001). Men who divorced in the 4-year period had a decrease in their nonaerobic steps (P = .020), whereas women who recoupled decreased their total steps (P = .030). Conclusions: Counseling for parents having a first child on how to increase physical activity in their everyday life could potentially have an influence on an individual’s physical activity.

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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff and Jamie F. Burr

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) can result in negative health and performance outcomes in both male and female athletes. The underlying etiology of RED-S is low energy availability (LEA), which occurs when there is insufficient dietary energy intake to meet exercise energy expenditure, corrected for fat-free mass, leaving inadequate energy available to ensure homeostasis and adequate energy turnover (optimize normal bodily functions to positively impact health), but also optimizing recovery, training adaptations, and performance. As such, treatment of RED-S involves increasing energy intake and/or decreasing exercise energy expenditure to address the underlying LEA. Clinically, however, the time burden and methodological errors associated with the quantification of energy intake, exercise energy expenditure, and fat-free mass to assess energy availability in free-living conditions make it difficult for the practitioner to implement in everyday practice. Furthermore, interpretation is complicated by the lack of validated energy availability thresholds, which can result in compromised health and performance outcomes in male and female athletes across various stages of maturation, ethnic races, and different types of sports. This narrative review focuses on pragmatic nonpharmacological strategies in the treatment of RED-S, featuring factors such as low carbohydrate availability, within-day prolonged periods of LEA, insufficient intake of bone-building nutrients, lack of mechanical bone stress, and/or psychogenic stress. This includes the implementation of strategies that address exacerbating factors of LEA, as well as novel treatment methods and underlying mechanisms of action, while highlighting areas of further research.

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Courtney M. Butowicz, Julian C. Acasio and Brad D. Hendershot

Altered trunk movements during gait in persons with lower-limb amputation are often associated with an increased risk for secondary health conditions; however, the postural control strategies underlying such alterations remain unclear. In this secondary analysis, the authors employed nonlinear measures of triplanar trunk accelerations via short-term Lyapunov exponents to investigate trunk local stability as well as spatiotemporal gait parameters to describe gait mechanics. The authors also evaluated the influence of a concurrent task on trunk local stability and gait mechanics to explore if competition for neuromuscular processing resources can assist in identifying unique strategies to control kinematic variability. Sixteen males with amputation—8 transtibial and 8 transfemoral—and 8 uninjured males (controls) walked on a treadmill at their self-selected speed (mean = 1.2 m/s ±10%) in 5 experimental conditions (8 min each): 4 while performing a concurrent task (2 walking and 2 seated) and 1 with no concurrent task. Individuals with amputation demonstrated significantly smaller Lyapunov exponents than controls in all 3 planes of motion, regardless of concurrent task or level of amputation (P < .0001). Individuals with transfemoral amputation walked with wider strides compared with individuals with transtibial amputation and controls (P < .0001). Individuals with amputation demonstrated more trunk kinematic variability in the presence of wider strides compared with individuals without amputation, and it appears that performing a concurrent cognitive task while walking did not change trunk or gait mechanics.