Context: Maximal power describes the ability to immediately produce power with the maximal velocity at the point of release, impact, and/or take off—the greater an athlete’s ability to produce maximal power, the greater the improvement of athletic performance. In reference to boxing performance, regular consistent production of high muscular power during punching is considered an essential prerequisite. Despite the importance of upper limb power to athletic performance, presently, there is no gold standard test for upper limb force development performance. Objective: To investigate the test–retest reliability of the force plate–derived measures of countermovement push-up in elite boxers. Design: Test–retest design. Setting: High Performance Olympic Training Center. Participants: Eighteen elite Olympic boxers (age = 23  y; height = 1.68 [0.39] m; body mass = 70.0  kg). Intervention: Participants performed 5 repetitions of countermovement push-up trials on FD4000 Forcedeck dual force platforms on 2 separate test occasions 7 days apart. Main Outcome Measures: Peak force, mean force, flight time, rate of force development, impulse, and vertical stiffness of the bilateral and unilateral limbs from the force–time curve. Results: No significant differences between the 2 trial occasions for any of the derived bilateral or unilateral performance measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to high reliability for performance parameters (intraclass correlation coefficients = .68–.98) and low coefficient of variation (3%–10%) apart from vertical stiffness (coefficient of variation = 16.5%–25%). Mean force demonstrated the greatest reliability (coefficient of variation = 3%). In contrast, no significant differences (P < .001) were noted between left and right limbs (P = .005–.791), or between orthodox or southpaw boxing styles (P = .19–.95). Conclusion: Force platform–derived kinetic bilateral and unilateral parameters of countermovement push-up are reliable measures of upper limb power performance in elite-level boxers; results suggest unilateral differences within the bilateral condition are not the norm for an elite boxing cohort.
Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington, Ian G. Horsley, and Ian Gatt
Nilüfer Kablan, Nuray Alaca, and Yaşar Tatar
Context: Fast and adequate recovery after exercise and activity is important for increasing performance and preventing injuries. Inadequate recovery usually causes changes in the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the muscle. Objective: To compare the immediate effect of petrissage massage (PM) and manual lymph drainage (MLD) following submaximal exercise on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of the rectus femoris muscle in healthy women. Design: Cross-sectional, repeated-measures. Setting: Marmara University. Participants: 18 healthy female students. Intervention(s): Following the submaximal quadriceps strengthening exercise performed in 3 sets of 8 repetitions with intensity of 75% of 1 maximum repetition, participants’ right leg received a 5-minute PM (PM group) and the contralateral leg received a 5-minute MLD application (MLD group). Main Outcome Measures: Skin temperature was measured using P45 thermographic thermal camera (Flir System; ThermaCAM, Danderyd, Sweden), and muscle tone, biomechanical, and viscoelastic features were measured with a myometer (Myoton AS, Tallinn, Estonia) at baseline, immediately postexercise, post-PM/MLD application, and 10 minutes postexercise. Results: In the PM group, the tonus (P = .002) and stiffness (P < .001) values measured after the massage and at the end of the 10-minute resting period were found to be statistically different than those measured right after the exercise (P < .05). Relaxation time and creep values at all measurement times were significantly different (P < .05). In the MLD group, it was observed the tonus (P < .001), stiffness (P = .025), and relaxation time (P < .01) values decreased significantly after the MLD compared with the values measured after the exercise; however, the creep value was found to be significantly different in all measurements (P < .05). Conclusion: PM and MLD reduce passive tissue stiffness and improve the extent of muscle extensibility over time against the muscle tensile strength. PM and MLD are therapeutic methods that can be used to support tissue recovery after exercise and prevent injuries.
Matías Henríquez, Aitor Iturricastillo, Arturo González-Olguín, Felipe Herrera, Sonny Riquelme, and Raul Reina
This study compared physical performance in a group of international cerebral palsy football players during two formats of small-sided games (SSGs) and performance in a simulated game (SG) according to players’ sport classes (FT1, FT2, and FT3). Internal load (heart rate and rating of perceived exertion) and external load (total distance, distance covered at different velocities, maximum speed reached, acceleration, and deceleration) were obtained with global positioning system devices during two formats of SSGs (2-a-side/SSG2 and 4-a-side/SSG4) and an SG (7-a-side). SSG2 demands faster actions compared with SSG4/SG, and significant differences and large effect sizes were found in the distance covered in Speed Zones 5 (16.0−17.9 km/hr) and 6 (>18.0 km/hr; p < .05;
Dhinu J. Jayaseelan, Cesar Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Taylor Blattenberger, and Dean Bonneau
Clinical Scenario: Plantar heel pain is a common condition frequently associated with persistent symptoms and functional limitations affecting both the athletic and nonathletic populations. Common interventions target impairments at the foot and ankle and local drivers of symptoms. If symptoms are predominantly perpetuated by alterations in central pain processing, addressing peripheral impairments alone may not be sufficient. Clinical Question: Do individuals with chronic plantar heel pain demonstrate signs potentially associated with altered central pain processing? Summary of Key Findings: After searching 6 electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, SportDiscus, Cochrane, and PEDro) and filtering titles based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 4 case-control studies were included. All studies scored highly on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for quality assessment. Using pressure pain thresholds, each study found decreased pressure pain hypersensitivity locally and at a remote site compared to control groups, suggesting the presence, to some extent, of altered nociceptive pain processing. Clinical Bottom Line: In the studies reviewed, reported results suggest a possible presence of centrally mediated symptoms in persons with plantar heel pain. However, despite findings from these studies, limitations in appropriate matching based on body mass index and measures used suggest additional investigation is warranted. Strength of Recommendation: According to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, there is evidence level C to suggest chronic plantar heel pain is associated with alterations in central pain processing.
Matthew K. Seeley, Seong Jun Son, Hyunsoo Kim, and J. Ty Hopkins
Context: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is often categorized by researchers and clinicians using subjective self-reported PFP characteristics; however, this practice might mask important differences in movement biomechanics between PFP patients. Objective: To determine whether biomechanical differences exist during a high-demand multiplanar movement task for PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics but different quadriceps activation levels. Design: Cross-sectional design. Setting: Biomechanics laboratory. Participants: A total of 15 quadriceps deficient and 15 quadriceps functional (QF) PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics. Intervention: In total, 5 trials of a high-demand multiplanar land, cut, and jump movement task were performed. Main Outcome Measures: Biomechanics were compared at each percentile of the ground contact phase of the movement task (α = .05) between the quadriceps deficient and QF groups. Biomechanical variables included (1) whole-body center of mass, trunk, hip, knee, and ankle kinematics; (2) hip, knee, and ankle kinetics; and (3) ground reaction forces. Results: The QF patients exhibited increased ground reaction force, joint torque, and movement, relative to the quadriceps deficient patients. The QF patients exhibited: (1) up to 90, 60, and 35 N more vertical, posterior, and medial ground reaction force at various times of the ground contact phase; (2) up to 4° more knee flexion during ground contact and up to 4° more plantarflexion and hip extension during the latter parts of ground contact; and (3) up to 26, 21, and 48 N·m more plantarflexion, knee extension, and hip extension torque, respectively, at various times of ground contact. Conclusions: PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics exhibit different movement biomechanics, and these differences depend upon quadriceps activation levels. These differences are important because movement biomechanics affect injury risk and athletic performance. In addition, these biomechanical differences indicate that different therapeutic interventions may be needed for PFP patients with similar self-reported PFP characteristics.
Sean Sanford, Mingxiao Liu, and Raviraj Nataraj
Context: Continuous visual feedback (VF) can improve abilities to achieve desired movements and maximize rehabilitation outcomes by displaying actual versus target body positions in real time. Bandwidth VF reduces the reliance on feedback by displaying movement cues only when performance errors exceed specified thresholds. As such, bandwidth VF may better train independent movement abilities through greater development of intrinsic body control. In this study, continuous and bandwidth VF were investigated across modes of display (abstract and representative) that differed in body-discernibility. Objective: To compare the performance of the 2-legged squat during training with concurrent feedback (real-time VF) and short-term retention (immediately after training, VF removed). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University research laboratory. Participants: Eighteen healthy individuals. Methods: Marker-based motion capture displayed real-time position. Main Outcome Measures: Four VF cases (continuous–abstract, bandwidth–abstract, continuous–representative, and bandwidth–representative) were evaluated for accuracy and consistency to a target trajectory and target depth. Results: During training, both continuous VF cases showed significantly (P < .05) higher accuracy and consistency to the target trajectory compared with both bandwidth VF cases. Bandwidth VF resulted in greater potential learning (retention performance relative to a training baseline) compared with continuous–abstract. Conclusions: Continuous–representative may offer unique performance benefits in both training and retention of multisegment movement tasks. Bandwidth VF showed greater potential for learning. For long-term learning, an optimal VF paradigm should consider continuous–representative with bandwidth features.
Pablo Fanlo-Mazas, Elena Bueno-Gracia, Alazne Ruiz de Escudero-Zapico, Carlos López-de-Celis, César Hidalgo-García, Jacobo Rodríguez-Sanz, and María Orosia Lucha-López
Context: Localized and widespread hyperalgesia has been observed in patients with patellofemoral pain. Diacutaneous fibrolysis (DF) has shown to be effective in reducing pain in several musculoskeletal conditions including patellofemoral pain syndrome, but no studies have evaluated the effects of this technique in reducing localized and widespread hyperalgesia. Objective: To assess the effect of DF on the pressure pain threshold and muscle length tests in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Design: A single-group, pretest–posttest clinical trial. Setting: University of Zaragoza. Participants: Forty-six subjects with patellofemoral pain (20 males and 26 females: age 27.8 [6.9] y). Intervention: Three sessions of DF. Main Outcome Measures: Pressure pain threshold using a handheld pressure algometer (4 sites around the knee, on tibialis anterior muscle, and one remote site on the upper contralateral limb); muscle length test of the iliotibial band, rectus femoris, and hamstring muscles; and patient-perceived treatment effect score. Results: The application of 3 sessions of DF significantly increased the pressure pain threshold in all sites at posttreatment evaluation (P < .001) and at a 1-week follow-up (P < .001). A significant increase in muscle length was also observed at the posttreatment evaluation (P < .001) and 1-week follow-up (P < .001). Ninety-seven percent of the patients reported subjective improvement at posttreatment and at 1-week follow-up. Conclusion: This study found that local and widespread hyperalgesia was significantly reduced after 3 sessions of diacutaneous fibrolysis and at the 1-week follow-up. A significant improvement on muscle length tests was also observed, with high clinical satisfaction among patients.
Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna
The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of people with Parkinson’s (PwP) and their care partners (CPs) who participated in a Parkinson’s-focused community dance class in a northeastern state of the United States. In this qualitative inquiry, participants included five PwP and their respective CPs (n = 5). Three major, recurrent, and interrelated themes emerged from the data. These themes were (a) keep moving, (b) compassion in action, and (c) acceptance and freedom in dance. These themes captured personal and environmental factors that influenced the participation of PwP and their CPs in a dance class and how they perceived that dance influenced their quality of life. The themes described the obstacles, motives, and perceived outcomes of participating in dance. The findings emphasize the need for future dance interventions and programs that consider the CPs’ role in promoting participation for PwP in dance classes.
Kyoungyoun Park-Braswell, Sandra J. Shultz, and Randy J. Schmitz
Context: Greater anterior knee laxity (AKL) is associated with impaired sensory input and decreased functional knee stability. As functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for understanding brain function, methods to load the anterior cruciate ligament in the MRI environment could further our understanding of the ligament’s sensory role in knee joint stability. Objective: To design and validate an MRI-compatible anterior knee joint loading device. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: University laboratory study. Participants: Sixteen healthy and physically active females participated (age = 23.4 [3.7] y; mass = 64.4 [8.4] kg). Interventions: The AKL was assessed by a commercially available arthrometer. The AKL was also assessed with a custom-made, MRI-compatible device that produced anterior knee joint loading in a manner similar to the commercial arthrometer while obtaining dynamic structural MRI data. Main Outcome Measurements: The AKL (in millimeters) at 133 N of loading was assessed with the commercial knee arthrometer. Anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur obtained at 133 N of loading was measured from dynamic MRI data obtained during usage of the custom device. Pearson correlations were used to examine relationships between the 2 measures. The 95% limits of agreement compared the absolute differences between the 2 devices. Results: There was a 3.2-mm systematic difference between AKL (6.3 [1.6] mm) and anterior tibial translation (3.2 [1.0] mm) measures. There was a significant positive correlation between values obtained from the commercial arthrometer and the MRI-compatible device values (r = .553, P = .026). Conclusions: While systematic differences were observed, the MRI-compatible anterior knee joint loading device anteriorly translated the tibia relative to the femur in a similar manner to a commercial arthrometer design to stress the anterior cruciate ligament. Such a device may be beneficial in future functional magnetic resonance imaging study of anterior cruciate ligament mechanoreception.