A gap in knowledge exists regarding how to maintain physical activity (PA) for individuals with acquired disabilities following initial introductory experiences. The current study aimed to contribute to filling this gap by exploring the PA pathways of military veterans with a physical disability, particularly those who maintain long-term PA, from impairment to the present. Veterans with a physical disability (N = 18) participated in interviews exploring their PA history and experiences. A reflexive thematic analysis was conducted to generate common pathways in PA participation, as well as to examine which elements of participation supported PA maintenance. Three long-term pathways were identified—two parasport pathways and one recreational PA pathway. Four elements of participation (i.e., mastery, challenge, belongingness, meaning) supported to maintain PA at key junctures. This knowledge provides further understanding of how to promote long-term PA for individuals with acquired disabilities and can support advancements in theory, as well as program development.
Celina H. Shirazipour and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Neil D. Clarke and Darren L. Richardson
There is growing evidence that caffeine and coffee ingestion prior to exercise provide similar ergogenic benefits. However, there has been a long-standing paradigm that habitual caffeine intake may influence the ergogenicity of caffeine supplementation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of habitual caffeine intake on 5-km cycling time-trial performance following the ingestion of caffeinated coffee. Following institutional ethical approval, in a double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled design, 46 recreationally active participants (27 men and 19 women) completed a 5-km cycling time trial on a cycle ergometer 60 m in following the ingestion of 0.09 g/kg coffee providing 3 mg/kg of caffeine, or a placebo. Habitual caffeine consumption was assessed using a caffeine consumption questionnaire with low habitual caffeine consumption defined as <3 and ≥6 mg · kg−1 · day−1 defined as high. An analysis of covariance using habitual caffeine intake as a covariant was performed to establish if habitual caffeine consumption had an impact on the ergogenic effect of coffee ingestion. Sixteen participants were classified as high-caffeine users and 30 as low. Ingesting caffeinated coffee improved 5-km cycling time-trial performance by 8 ± 12 s; 95% confidence interval (CI) [5, 13]; p < .001; d = 0.30, with low, 9±14 s; 95% CI [3, 14]; p = .002; d = 0.18, and high, 8 ± 10 s; 95% CI [−1, 17]; p = .008; d = 0.06, users improving by a similar magnitude, 95% CI [−12, 12]; p = .946; d = 0.08. In conclusion, habitual caffeine consumption did not affect the ergogenicity of coffee ingestion prior to a 5-km cycling time trial.
George P. Robinson, Sophie C. Killer, Zdravko Stoyanov, Harri Stephens, Luke Read, Lewis J. James and Stephen J. Bailey
This study investigated whether supplementation with nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) can improve high-intensity intermittent running performance in trained males in normoxia and different doses of normobaric hypoxia. Eight endurance-trained males (
Ali Daraei, Sajad Ahmadizad, Hiwa Rahmani, Anthony C. Hackney, Kelly E. Johnson, Ismail Laher, Ayoub Saeidi and Hassane Zouhal
The effects of acute consumption of L-Arginine (L-Arg) in healthy young individuals are not clearly defined, and no studies on the effects of L-Arg in individuals with abnormal body mass index undertaking strenuous exercise exist. Thus, we examined whether supplementation with L-Arg diminishes cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses, such as ventilation (VE), VE/VCO2, oxygen uptake (VO2), and heart rate, in response to an acute session of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in overweight men. A double-blind, randomized crossover design was used to study 30 overweight men (age, 26.5 ± 2.2 years; body weight, 88.2 ± 5.3 kilogram; body mass index, 28.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2). Participants first completed a ramped-treadmill exercise protocol to determine VO2max velocity (vVO2max), after which they participated in two sessions of HIIE. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 6 g of L-Arg or placebo supplements. The HIIE treadmill running protocol consisted of 12 trials, including exercise at 100% of vVO2max for 1 min interspersed with recovery intervals of 40% of vVO2max for 2 min. Measurements of VO2 (ml·kg−1·min−1), VE (L/min), heart rate (beat per min), and VE/VCO2 were obtained. Supplementation with L-Arg significantly decreased all cardiorespiratory responses during HIIE (placebo+HIIE vs. L-Arg+HIIE for each measurement: VE [80.9 ± 4.3 L/min vs. 74.6 ± 3.5 L/min, p < .05, ES = 1.61], VE/VCO2 [26.4 ± 1.3 vs. 24.4 ± 1.0, p < .05, ES = 1.8], VO2 [26.4 ± 0.8 ml·kg−1·min−1 vs. 24.4 ± 0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1, p < .05, ES = 2.2], and heart rate [159.7 ± 6.3 beats/min vs. 155.0 ± 3.7 beats/min, p < .05, d = 0.89]). The authors conclude consuming L-Arg before HIIE can alleviate the excessive physiological strain resulting from HIIE and help to increase exercise tolerance in participants with a higher body mass index who may need to exercise on a regular basis for extended periods to improve their health.
Naroa Etxebarria, Brad Clark, Megan L. Ross, Timothy Hui, Roland Goecke, Ben Rattray and Louise M. Burke
The ingestion of quinine, a bitter tastant, improves short-term (30 s) cycling performance, but it is unclear whether this effect can be integrated into the last effort of a longer race. The purpose of this study was to determine whether midtrial quinine ingestion improves 3,000-m cycling time-trial (TT) performance. Following three familiarization TTs, 12 well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: mass = 76.6 ± 9.2 kg, maximal aerobic power = 390 ± 50 W, maximal oxygen uptake = 4.7 ± 0.6 L/min) performed four experimental 3,000-m TTs on consecutive days. This double-blind, crossover design study had four randomized and counterbalanced conditions: (a) Quinine 1 (25-ml solution, 2 mM of quinine); (b) Quinine 2, replicate of Quinine 1; (c) a 25-ml sweet-tasting no-carbohydrate solution (Placebo); and (d) 25 ml of water (Control) consumed at the 1,850-m point of the TT. The participants completed a series of perceptual scales at the start and completion of all TTs, and the power output was monitored continuously throughout all trials. The power output for the last 1,000 m for all four conditions was similar: mean ± SD: Quinine 1 = 360 ± 63 W, Quinine 2 = 367 ± 63 W, Placebo = 364 ± 64 W, and Control = 367 ± 58 W. There were also no differences in the 3,000-m TT power output between conditions. The small perceptual differences between trials at specific 150-m splits were not explained by quinine intake. Ingesting 2 mM of quinine during the last stage of a 3,000-m TT did not improve cycling performance.
Jihyeon Lee and Laura Azzarito
Recent reports have indicated that recent immigrant minority girls are the least physically active in the United States and are often categorized as “bodies-at-risk” for obesity and other health issues. This dominant “at-risk” discourse presents a negative image of recent immigrant minority girls and positions them as “others.” This participatory visual study thus explored how the recent immigrant minority girls co-constructed and shared their (dis)engagement in physical culture on a popular social media platform: Instagram. Results demonstrated that the use of Instagram served two interrelated functions: (a) a constructive pedagogical space in which the participants examined, learned, and expressed their knowledge related to physical activity and health and (b) an empowering tool to create “Thirdspace” in which the participants’ visual texts opened up the space of inclusion and fluidity. Despite potential risks, it was suggested that the use of Instagram was beneficial for conducting research with, for, and about marginalized youth.
Christopher J. Stevens, Megan L.R. Ross and Roxanne M. Vogel
Menthol is effective at stimulating thermosensitive neurons that evoke pleasant cooling sensations. Internal application of menthol can be ergogenic for athletes, and hence, addition of menthol to sports nutrition products may be beneficial for athletes. The aim of this study was to develop a menthol energy gel for consumption during exercise and to determine acceptability and preferences for gels with different menthol concentrations. With a randomized, crossover, and double-blind placebo-controlled design, 40 endurance athletes (20 females) ingested an energy gel with a menthol additive at a high (0.5%; HIGH) or low concentration (0.1%; LOW), or a mint-flavored placebo (CON), on separate occasions during outdoor endurance training sessions. The athletes rated the gels for cooling sensation, mint flavor intensity, sweetness, and overall experience and provided feedback. Results are reported as median (interquartile range). Both menthol gels successfully delivered a cooling sensation, with a significantly greater response for HIGH (5.0 [4.0–5.0]) compared with LOW (3.5 [3.0–4.0]; p = .022) and CON (1.0 [1.0–2.0]; p < .0005), and LOW compared with CON (p < .0005). Ratings of mint flavor intensity followed the same trend as cooling sensation, while ratings of overall experience were significantly worse for HIGH (2.0 [1.0–3.0]) compared with LOW (4.0 [2.0–4.0]; p = .001) and CON (4.0 [3.0–4.0]; p < .0005). An energy gel with the addition of menthol at 0.1–0.5% provides a cooling sensation for athletes with a dose–response when ingested during exercise. The 0.1% concentration is recommended to maximize the overall experience of the gel.
Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, Beatriz D. Schaan and Beatriz D. Schaan
This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in glucose control and respiratory muscle function in patients with diabetes. It was a randomized clinical trial conducted at the Physiopathology Laboratory of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to IMT or placebo-IMT (P-IMT), performed at 30% and 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure, respectively, every day for 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, glycemia, and respiratory muscle function. Thirty patients were included: 73.3% women, 59.6 ± 10.7 years old, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.9% (71.6 ± 9.8 mmol/mol), and glycemia 181.8 ± 57.8 mg/dl (10.5 ± 3.2 mmol/L). At the end of the training, HbA1c was 8.2 ±0.3% (66.1 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) and 8.7 ± 0.3% (71.6 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively (p = .8). Fasting glycemia decreased in both groups with no difference after training although it was lower in IMT at 8 weeks: 170.0 ± 11.4 mg/dl(9.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L) and 184.4 ± 15.0 mg/dl (10.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L) for IMT and P-IMT, respectively (p < .05). Respiratory endurance time improved in the IMT group (baseline = 325.9 ± 51.1 s and 305.0 ± 37.8 s; after 12 weeks = 441.1 ± 61.7 s and 250.7 ± 39.0 s for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively; p < .05). Considering that glucose control did not improve, IMT should not be used as an alternative to other types of exercise in diabetes. Higher exercise intensities or longer training periods might produce better results. The clinical trials identifier is NCT 03191435.
Koon Teck Koh, Chunxiao Li and Swarup Mukherjee
Purpose: Information and communication technologies can enable educators in the development of innovative and contextually relevant approaches for the provision of enhanced learning experiences. This study examined preservice physical education teachers’ perceptions of a flipped learning basketball course in a physical education teacher education program. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight preservice physical education teachers (three females; M age = 23.5 years) who had completed the course. Interview data were coded using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were identified reflecting benefits, challenges, and recommendations of flipped learning: (a) facilitate student-centered learning, (b) promote self-directed learning, (c) encourage real-world application, (d) insufficient avenues to assess understanding, (e) preclass preparation too time consuming, and (f) modification of materials and structure. Discussion/Conclusion: Flipped learning can potentially enhance preservice physical education teachers’ motivation for learning and increase active learning time in the sport-based courses in physical education teacher education. The identified challenges and recommendations are valuable for physical education teacher education educators to effectively prepare and execute flipped learning-based courses.