This study aimed to investigate the association between the optimum power load in the bench press (BP), shoulder press (SP), and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises and acceleration (ACC) and speed performances in 11 National Team wheelchair basketball (WB) players with similar levels of disability. All athletes were previously familiarized with the testing procedures that were performed on the same day during the competitive period of the season. First, athletes performed a wheelchair 20-m sprint assessment and, subsequently, a maximum power load test to determine the mean propulsive power (MPP) in the BP, SP, and PBP. A Pearson product–moment correlation was used to examine the relationships between sprint velocity (VEL), ACC, and the MPP in the three exercises. The significance level was set as p < .05. Large to very large significant associations were observed between VEL and ACC and the MPP in the BP, SP, and PBP exercises (r varying from .60 to .77; p < .05). The results reveal that WB players who produce more power in these three exercises are also able to accelerate faster and achieve higher speeds over short distances. Given the key importance of high and successive ACCs during wheelchair game-related maneuvers, it is recommended that coaches frequently assess the optimum power load in BP, SP, and PBP in WB players, even during their regular training sessions.
Irineu Loturco, Michael R. McGuigan, Valter P. Reis, Sileno Santos, Javier Yanci, Lucas A. Pereira and Ciro Winckler
Chantelle Zimmer, Janice Causgrove Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may experience stress in physical activity contexts due to emphasis on their poor motor skills. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of children at risk for DCD in physical education in order to develop a deeper understanding about what they experience as stress and how they cope with it. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, six children in Grades 4–6 participated in two semistructured interviews. A motivational (and developmental) stress and coping theory informed interpretation of the three themes that described the children’s experiences: (a) they hurt me—psychological and physical harm sustained from peers, (b) it’s hard for me—difficulties encountered in activities, and (c) I have to—pressure to meet the teacher’s demands. Although the children at risk for DCD were confronted with various stressors in physical education, they coped more adaptively when social support was provided.
Willie Leung and Jeffrey A. McCubbin
Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson and Joseph Baker
Little is known about the factors influencing Paralympic athletes’ journey to expertise and whether these athletes have trajectories similar to those of their able-bodied (AB) peers. The purpose of this project was to compare the developmental trajectories of wheelchair and AB basketball players. A total of 150 participants completed the Developmental History of Athletes Questionnaire. Results revealed that while AB athletes reached early career milestones at a significantly younger age, athletes with congenital impairments reached midcareer milestones at similar ages to AB athletes. In addition, athletes with acquired impairments were able to reach key late-career performance milestones (i.e., national and international debuts) at a similar age to the other two groups. The findings from this study suggest complex developmental pathways that may not be reflected in current developmental models. Therefore, the authors suggest that scientists and practitioners be cognizant of context-specific needs when providing training recommendations.
Laura A. Prieto, Justin A. Haegele and Luis Columna
The purpose of this systematic review was to examine published research literature pertaining to dance programs for school-age individuals with disabilities by describing study characteristics and major findings. Electronic database searches were conducted to identify relevant articles published between January 2008 and August 2018. Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria, and extracted data from the articles included major findings, study design characteristics (e.g., sample size), and dance program characteristics (e.g., location of program). The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. Major findings expand on previous reviews on dance by including school-age individuals with disabilities. The critical appraisal of the articles demonstrates a gap in study design rigor between studies. Future research should aim to specify sampling strategies, use theories to frame the impact of dance programs, and provide a thorough description of ethical processes and dance classes.
ZáNean McClain, Jill Pawlowski and Kip Webster
Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann and Susan Hillier
The aim of this study was to describe and undertake an initial evaluation of a student-led assessment service for children with possible motor-skill difficulties. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional descriptive clinical data collected from 2015 to 2016 was undertaken. Children (N = 102) were assessed in preschools by physiotherapy students (supervised by qualified physiotherapists). Key outcomes included the following: Children’s Activities Scale, Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2, and demographic/service-usage/onward referral statistics. The results highlighted that for every five children referred/assessed, two were at risk of motor-skill difficulties (∼43%). About 66% of children were subsequently referred on or monitored (40% requiring multidisciplinary follow-up). Conversely 34% of children did not require further services. In conclusion, a student-led assessment service may be a sustainable and feasible option to assist children at risk of motor-skill difficulties, enabling onward referral. Additional evaluation is required to garner stakeholder feedback.
Jian Xu, Poram Choi, Robert W. Motl and Stamatis Agiovlasitis
Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior may contribute to physical function in adults with intellectual disability (ID). This study examined whether objectively measured PA and sedentary behavior levels are associated with physical performance in adults with ID. Fifty-eight adults with ID (29 women and 29 men, age 44 ± 14 years) underwent a measurement of physical performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and PA and sedentary time using a hip-worn accelerometer (wGT3X-BT; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL). Moderate PA and age were significantly associated with the SPPB score (r = .39 and .34, respectively; p < .01). A hierarchical-regression model with moderate PA and age as independent variables indicated that moderate PA was a significant predictor of SPPB (p < .001; R 2 = .153), but age was not (p = .123; R 2 change = .036). Overall, moderate PA was significantly associated with the SPPB score, even after accounting for age, in adults with ID.
Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele and Xihe Zhu
The purpose of this study was to describe the reflections of adults with visual impairments about learning to run during K–12 physical education. An interpretative phenomenological analysis research approach was used, and eight adults (age 22–35 years) with visual impairments served as participants. Primary data sources were semistructured, audiotaped telephone interviews and reflective interview notes. Based on a thematic data analysis process, two themes were developed: (a) “I wouldn’t expect anything better from you”: running instruction in physical education and (b) “You look like the guy in the crosswalk signal”: making up for the shortcomings of physical education. The narratives portraying these themes highlight the lack of instruction that took place in physical education, and the fact that no running instruction occurred at all. These findings indicate that professionals working with individuals with visual impairments should use instructional strategies that will allow for maximum access to learning fundamental movement skills such as running.