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Nick Wadsworth, Ben Paszkowec and Martin Eubank

This article presents a reflective case study of an applied consultancy experience with a 22-year-old professional rugby league player. The primary aim of the intervention was to provide the client a confidential space where he could discuss his experiences in and outside of a sporting context while also exploring and challenging his core values and beliefs. The consultancy process lasted for 12 mo, leading to the development of a strong relationship. During this time, the client experienced multiple critical moments such as deselection from the first-team squad and contract negotiations, which at times led to reductions in his well-being and forced the trainee sport and exercise psychologist to consider his scope of practice in relation to mental health and depression. Reflections are provided that explore the possibility of referral during these moments. The case study also provides insight into the trainee sport and exercise psychologist’s philosophy of practice and how influential this can be when considering referral of a client. The importance of supervisor support during uncertain moments is highlighted, and the case study concludes with reflections from the client, trainee practitioner, and peer supervisor regarding the efficacy of the intervention and the decision not to refer.

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Ole Winthereik Mathorne, Kristoffer Henriksen and Natalia Stambulova

This case study in Danish swimming was informed by a holistic ecological approach in talent development and aimed to explore (a) collaborative relationships between the Danish swimming federation, a municipality, and a local swimming club, termed “an organizational triangle,” and (b) factors influencing the success of their collaboration at the local level. Data collection and analysis were guided by the athletic-talent-development-environment (working) model and a newly developed collaboration-success-factors (CSF) model. Methods included interviews with talent-development coordinators representing the organizations and analysis of documents. Results allowed the authors to transform the CSF (working) model into an empirical model containing the collaboration preconditions (e.g., power to make decisions), processes (e.g., strategic planning), and initiatives (e.g., efficient use of the swimming pool) and shared assumptions of the talent-development philosophy (e.g., long-term focus). The success of this organizational triangle was visible in the way the organizations increased the quality of talent development in the local swimming club.

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Kami N. Thews, Zachary K. Winkelmann, Lindsey E. Eberman, Kirsten A. Potts and Kenneth E. Games

Firefighters are exposed to psychological stress while on duty that could lead to mental and behavioral illnesses that may go unreported. We surveyed firefighters to identify their perceived barriers encountered when attempting to report a mental and behavioral illness with a follow-up question related to how difficult the selected barrier was in the reporting process. A total of 314 firefighters completed the instrument, with most indicating they experienced cultural barriers such as social norms from administration and peers. The findings demonstrate an overall demand for a cultural change within the fire service for a supportive environment that encourages reporting.

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Evelia Franco, Javier Coterón, Elisa Huéscar and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

Purpose: This study seeks to offer a motivational sequence that explains the intention of physical activity among low-motivation students. Method: Participants included 1,872 students (M age = 15.01, SD age = 0.83 years) from three countries. A cluster analysis (i.e., a person-centered approach) and a multigroup structural equation model (i.e., a dimensional approach) were used. Results: Three motivational profiles, namely, high motivation, high motivation with low ego, and low motivation–moderate task orientation were established. The model first tested, based on previous research findings, was found not to be invariant across the different profiles. The new model tested was determined to be suitable for the low-motivation profile. Discussion: The results revealed that widely accepted motivational sequences that explain the intention to be physically active in the future may be inapplicable for the least motivated students. The findings suggest that dispositional flow may play an important role in the engagement of low-motivation students in future physical activity.

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Amanda Sonnega, Amanda Leggett, Renee Pepin and Shervin Assari

Research suggests that physical activity may influence sleep, yet more research is needed before it can be considered a frontline treatment for insomnia. Less is known about how this relationship is moderated by age. Using multilevel modeling, we examined self-reported physical activity and insomnia symptoms in 18,078 respondents from the U.S. nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (2004–2014). The mean baseline age was 64.7 years, with 53.9% female. Individuals who reported more physical activity (B = −0.005, p < .001) had fewer insomnia symptoms. Over 10 years, the respondents reported fewer insomnia symptoms at times when they reported more physical activity than was average for them (B = −0.003, p < .001). Age moderated this relationship (B = 0.0002, p < .01). Although modest, these findings concur with the literature, suggesting moderate benefits of physical activity for sleep in older adults. Future research should aim to further elucidate this relationship among adults at advanced ages.

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Cédrick T. Bonnet

In an upright stance, individuals sway in unpredictable ways. Their eyes also move in unpredictable ways in fixation tasks. The objective of this study was to analyze visual functions, postural control, and cognitive involvement in stationary gaze. A total of 14 healthy young adults performed a fixation task and a free-viewing task (three trials per task, 45 s per trial). As expected, the results showed many (n = 32) significant positive Pearson correlation coefficients between the eye and center of pressure/body (head, neck, and lower back) movements in the fixation task. In the free-viewing task, the correlations were nonsignificant. Only 3 of the 32 significant correlations (9.4%) were significantly related to cognitive involvement (measured with a subjective questionnaire). These results indirectly strengthened the validity of the synergistic model of postural control.

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

During short-term recovery, postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion can accelerate total glycogen repletion and augment recovery of running capacity. It is unknown if this advantage translates to cycling, or to a longer (e.g., overnight) recovery. Using two experiments, the present research investigated if postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion augments exercise capacity following 4-hr (short experiment; n = 8) and 15-hr (overnight experiment; n = 8) recoveries from exhaustive exercise in trained cyclists, compared with isocaloric glucose alone. In each experiment, a glycogen depleting exercise protocol was followed by a 4-hr recovery, with ingestion of 1.5 or 1.2 g·kg−1·hr−1 carbohydrate in the short experiment (double blind) and the overnight experiment (single blind), respectively. Treatments were provided in a randomized order using a crossover design. Four or fifteen hours after the glycogen depletion protocol, participants cycled to exhaustion at 70% W max or 65% W max in the short experiment and the overnight experiment, respectively. In both experiments there was no difference in substrate oxidation or blood glucose and lactate concentrations between treatments during the exercise capacity test (trial effect, p > .05). Nevertheless, cycling capacity was greater in glucose + fructose versus glucose only in the short experiment (28.0 ± 8.4 vs. 22.8 ± 7.3 min, d = 0.65, p = .039) and the overnight experiment (35.9 ± 10.7 vs. 30.6 ± 9.2 min, d = 0.53, p = .026). This is the first study to demonstrate that postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion enhances cycling capacity following short-term (4 hr) and overnight (15 hr) recovery durations. Therefore, if multistage endurance athletes are ingesting glucose for rapid postexercise recovery then fructose containing carbohydrates may be advisable.

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Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell

Context: Concussions are consequence of sports participation. Recent reports indicate there is an increased risk of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury when returning to sport after concussion suggesting that achieving “normal” balance may not fully indicate the athlete is ready for competition. The increased risk of injury may indicate the need to refine a screening tool for clearance. Objective: Assess the between-session reliability and the effects of adding a cognitive task to static and dynamic postural stability testing in a healthy population. Setting: Clinical laboratory. Participants: Twelve healthy subjects (6 women; age 22.3 [2.9] y, height 174.4 [7.5] cm, weight 70.1 [12.7] kg) participated in this study. Design: Subjects underwent static and dynamic postural stability testing with and without the addition of a cognitive task (Stroop test). Test battery was repeated 10 days later. Dynamic postural stability testing consisted of a forward jump over a hurdle with a 1-legged landing. A stability index was calculated. Static postural stability was also assessed with and without the cognitive task during single-leg balance. Variability of each ground reaction force component was averaged. Main Outcome Measures: Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were computed to determine the reliability. Standard error of measure, mean standard error, mean detectable change, and 95% confidence interval were all calculated. Results: Mean differences between sessions were low, with the majority of variables having moderate to excellent reliability (static .583–.877, dynamic .581–.939). The addition of the dual task did not have any significant effect on reliability of the task; however, generally, the ICC values improved (eyes open .583–.770, dual task .741–.808). Conclusions: The addition of a cognitive load to postural stability assessments had moderate to excellent reliability in a healthy population. These results provide initial evidence on the feasibility of dual-task postural stability testing when examining risk of lower-extremity musculoskeletal injury following return to sport in a concussed population.

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit impairment in helping someone else with a motor action, which may arise from impairment in selecting and preparing motor responses. Five children with ASD and five typically developing children performed a cooperative motor planning task that required them to reach for, lift, and hand an object (hammer or stick) to a researcher. The response, movement, and grasp time were measured. Children with ASD grasped the object longer on trials where they helped, indicating that the action was planned in sequence versus as a whole (i.e., prior to the onset of movement). The hammer object elicited a quicker response than the stick, suggesting the facilitation of planning by tools with inherent action properties. Finally, the increased helping of children with ASD was not mirrored by changes in the response, movement, or grasp time.

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John J. Smith and Daniel J. Baer

In 2017, the NCAA implemented rule changes to enhance safety in college football; however, the effect on injury risk remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to observe differences in the number and rate of injuries and time-loss injuries in an NCAA Division II football team during two consecutive preseasons, before and after the rule changes. From 2016 to 2017, we observed a decrease in lower extremity (LE) muscle strains from 1.00 injury/session to 0.55 injuries/session. We also observed a decrease in time-loss LE muscle strains from 0.52 injuries/session in 2016 to 0.20 injuries/session in 2017. After the rule changes, we observed fewer time-loss injuries (14.06% decrease), acute LE strains (45.00% decrease), and time-loss LE strains (61.54% decrease) per preseason practice session. These findings suggest that the rule changes may help reduce both the number and severity of LE muscle strains during preseason football.