Background: Curriculum-integrated dance programs are a promising but relatively under-researched strategy for increasing children’s physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a curriculum-integrated dance program on children’s PA. Methods: A total of 134 primary children aged 7–9 years from 4 New Zealand schools were assigned to either a dance group (n = 78) or a control group (n = 56). The dance group participated in a 6-week curriculum-integrated dance program during school time. Although the dance program focused on curricular learning, fitness and coordination were embedded in the dance sessions. Intensity of PA varied according to the focus of each dance session. PA was measured at baseline and postintervention using a waist-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 8 consecutive days. Results: There were no significant intervention effects on PA levels between the dance and control groups postintervention. Conclusion: Dance-embedded learning did not increase overall levels of PA in this study. Future studies may consider assessing longer term effects of a dance-based intervention, or programs that place more focus on PA promotion.
You are looking at 191 - 200 of 28,825 items for :Clear All
Geeta Sharma, Tom Stewart and Scott Duncan
Mackenzie Holman, Madeline P. Casanova and Russell T. Baker
Context: Patient-reported outcomes are widely used in health care. The Disablement in the Physically Active (DPA) Scale Short Form-8 (SF-8) was recently proposed as a valid scale for the physically active population. However, further psychometric testing of the DPA SF-8 has not been completed, and scale structure has not been assessed using a sample of adolescent athletes. Objective: To assess scale structure of the DPA SF-8 in a sample of adolescent high-school athletes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Adolescent athletes (n = 289) completed the DPA SF-8. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the scale. Results: The CFA of the DPA SF-8 indicated that the model exceeded recommended fit indices (Comparative Fit Index = .976, Tucker–Lewis Index = .965, Root Mean Square Error of Approximation = .061, and Bollen’s Incremental Fit Index = .976). All factor loadings were significant and ranged from .62 to .86. Modification indices did not suggest that meaningful cross-loadings were present or additional specifications that could further maximize fit or parsimony. Conclusions: The CFA of the DPA SF-8 met contemporary model fit recommendations in the adolescent athlete population. The results confirmed initial findings supporting the psychometric properties of the DPA SF-8 as well as the uniqueness of the quality-of-life and physical summary factors in an adolescent population. Further research (eg, reliability, invariance between groups, minimal clinically important differences, etc) is warranted to inform scale use in clinical practice and research.
Ángel Luis Clemente Remón, Víctor Jiménez Díaz-Benito, José Emilio Jiménez Beatty and José Antonio Santacruz Lozano
The study aimed to ascertain the levels of older European people’s physical activity according to sociodemographic variables. The sample size was 7,893 citizens aged 65 and over from the European Union. The participants were classified as physically inactive, adequately active, or highly active, according to the World Health Organization. The total metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week were also calculated. In the results, 55.5% of older people were adequately active, and 43.8% were highly active, especially in the North and West. The average metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week was 1,313 metabolic equivalents of task minutes, with walking as the main activity, followed by moderate physical activity and vigorous activity. Male older people of a lower age from the North and West, with a higher level of education and less difficulty in paying bills, were more likely to be physically active. As a conclusion, only slightly more than half the population were adequately active. These sociodemographic inequalities show the necessity of implementing specific measures.
Kate N. Jochimsen, Carl G. Mattacola, Brian Noehren, Kelsey J. Picha, Stephen T. Duncan and Cale A. Jacobs
Context: Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) is a painfully debilitating hip condition disproportionately affecting active individuals. Mental health disorders are an important determinant of treatment outcomes for individuals with FAIS. Self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, and pain catastrophizing are psychosocial factors that have been linked to inferior outcomes for a variety of orthopedic conditions. However, these psychosocial factors and their relationships with mental health disorders, pain, and function have not been examined in individuals with FAIS. Objective: (1) To examine relationships between self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, pain, and function in patients with FAIS and (2) to determine if these variables differ between patients with and without a self-reported depression and/or anxiety. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: University health center. Participants: Fifty-one individuals with FAIS (42 females/9 males; age 35.7 [11.6] y; body mass index 27.1 [4.9] kg/m2). Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, visual analog scale for hip pain at rest and during activity, and the 12-item International Hip Outcome Tool. Self-reported depression and/or anxiety were recorded. The relationships between psychosocial factors, pain, and function were examined using Spearman rank-order correlations. Independent t tests and Mann–Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the effect of self-reported depression and/or anxiety on psychosocial factors, pain and function. Results: The 12-item International Hip Outcome Tool was correlated with pain during activity (ρ = −.57, P ≤ .001), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (ρ = −.52, P ≤ .001), and Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (ρ = .71, P ≤ .001). The Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire was also correlated with pain at rest (ρ = −.43, P = .002) and pain during activity (ρ = −.46, P = .001). Individuals with self-reported depression and/or anxiety (18/51; 35.3%) had worse self-efficacy and pain catastrophizing (P ≤ .01). Conclusion: Self-reported depression and/or anxiety, low self-efficacy, and high kinesiophobia were associated with more hip pain and worse function for patients with FAIS. These findings warrant further examination including psychosocial treatment strategies to improve the likelihood of a successful clinical outcome for this at-risk population.
Jarle Stålesen, Thomas Westergren, Bjørge Herman Hansen and Sveinung Berntsen
Background: Smartphones with embedded sensors, such as accelerometers, are promising tools for assessing physical activity (PA), provided they can produce valid and reliable indices. The authors aimed to summarize studies on the PA measurement properties of smartphone accelerometers compared with research-grade PA monitors or other objective methods across the intensity spectrum, and to report the effects of different smartphone placements on the accuracy of measurements. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on July 1, 2019 in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus, followed by screening. Results: Nine studies were included, showing moderate-to-good agreements between PA indices derived from smartphone accelerometers and research-grade PA monitors and/or indirect calorimetry. Three studies investigated measurement properties across smartphone placements, with small differences. Large heterogeneity across studies hampered further comparisons. Conclusions: Despite moderate-to-good agreements between PA indices derived from smartphone accelerometers and research-grade PA monitors and/or indirect calorimetry, the validity of smartphone monitoring is currently challenged by poor intermonitor reliability between smartphone brands/versions, heterogeneity in protocols used for validation, the sparsity of studies, and the need to address the effects of smartphone placement.
Caitlin Brinkman, Shelby E. Baez, Carolina Quintana, Morgan L. Andrews, Nick R. Heebner, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch
Context: Fast visuomotor reaction time (VMRT), the time required to recognize and respond to sequentially appearing visual stimuli, allows an athlete to successfully respond to stimuli during sports participation, while slower VMRT has been associated with increased injury risk. Light-based systems are capable of measuring both upper- and lower-extremity VMRT; however, the reliability of these assessments are not known. Objective: To determine the reliability of an upper- and lower-extremity VMRT task using a light-based trainer system. Design: Reliability study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients (or Other Participants): Twenty participants with no history of injury in the last 12 months. Methods: Participants reported to the laboratory on 2 separate testing sessions separated by 1 week. For both tasks, participants were instructed to extinguish a random sequence of illuminated light-emitting diode disks, which appeared one at a time as quickly as possible. Participants were provided a series of practice trials before completing the test trials. VMRT was calculated as the time in seconds between target hits, where higher VMRT represented slower reaction time. Main Outcome Measures: Separate intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine test–retest reliability for each task. The SEM and minimal detectable change values were determined to examine clinical applicability. Results: The right limb lower-extremity reliability was excellent (ICC2,1 = .92; 95% CI, .81–.97). Both the left limb (ICC2,1 = .80; 95% CI, .56–.92) and upper-extremity task (ICC2,1 = .86; 95% CI, .65–.95) had good reliability. Conclusions: Both VMRT tasks had clinically acceptable reliability in a healthy, active population. Future research should explore further applications of these tests as an outcome measure following rehabilitation for health conditions with known VMRT deficits.
Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago, Iván Prieto-Lage, Arturo Martín and Carlos Ayán
Background: To provide information regarding injury incidence, injury pattern, and associated injury risk factors in elite Paralympic judokas. Methods: Participants in this observational research were elite judokas taking part in the IBSA 2018 World Judo Championship. The entire championship was videotaped, and all injuries were prospectively documented using an all-complaints definition. Results: The tournament featured 267 judokas, (B1 = 58; B2 = 105; B3 = 104). The injury proportion was estimated at 18.9 injuries/100 fighters (B1 = 13.8; B2 = 22.3; B3 = 18.5). A total of 745 athletic exposures were registered. The overall injury rate was 68.5 (95% CI, 52.5–89.2); 62.5 (95% CI, 32–122.3); 79.6 (95% CI, 53.8–17.8); and 61.2 (95% CI, 40–93.5) for the total sample, B1, B2, and B3 judokas, respectively. When only injuries resulting in medical attention were analyzed, the overall injury rate was calculated to be 22.8 (95% CI, 14.3–36.5), and the injury proportion was estimated at 6.3 injuries/100 fighters. No significant differences were found for sex, weight, and visual class regarding injury proportion and injury rates. Conclusion: Paralympic judokas show a high injury rate. However, when only injuries that needed medical attention were taken into account, the proportion of athletes injured was low. The degree of visual impairment was not considered as an injury risk factor.
Jeanette M. Ricci, Todd A. Astorino, Katharine D. Currie and Karin A. Pfeiffer
The majority of studies examining children’s responses to high-intensity interval exercise primarily utilized running; however, this modality does not require/include other important aspects of physical activity including muscular fitness. Purpose: To compare acute responses between a body weight resistance exercise circuit (CIRC) and treadmill-based (TM) high-intensity interval exercise. Method: A total of 17 boys (age = 9.7 [1.3] y) completed a graded exercise test to determine peak heart rate, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and maximal aerobic speed. Sessions were randomized and counterbalanced. CIRC required 2 sets of 30-second maximal repetitions of 4 exercises. TM included eight 30-second bouts of running at 100% maximal aerobic speed. Both included 30-second active recovery between bouts. Blood lactate concentration was measured preexercise and postexercise. Rating of perceived exertion, affective valence, and enjoyment were recorded preexercise, after intervals 3 and 6, and postexercise. Results: Participants attained 88% (5%) peak heart rate and 74% (9%) VO2peak for CIRC and 89% (4%) peak heart rate and 81% (6%) VO2peak for TM, with a significant difference in percentage of VO2peak (P = .003) between protocols. Postexercise blood lactate concentration was higher following CIRC (5.0 [0.7] mM) versus TM (2.0 [0.3] mM) (P < .001). Rating of perceived exertion, affective valence, and enjoyment responses did not differ between protocols (P > .05). Conclusion: HR responses were near maximal during CIRC, supporting that this body-weight circuit is representative of high-intensity interval exercise.
Rafael E.A. Muchaxo, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Thomas W.J. Janssen and Carla Nooijen
The classification system for handcycling groups athletes into five hierarchical classes, based on how much their impairment affects performance. Athletes in class H5, with the least impairments, compete in a kneeling position, while athletes in classes H1 to H4 compete in a recumbent position. This study investigated the average time-trial velocity of athletes in different classes. A total of 1,807 results from 353 athletes who competed at 20 international competitions (2014–2018) were analyzed. Multilevel regression was performed to analyze differences in average velocities between adjacent pairs of classes, while correcting for gender, age, and event distance. The average velocity of adjacent classes was significantly different (p < .01), with higher classes being faster, except for H4 and H5. However, the effect size of the differences between H3 and H4 was smaller (d = 0.12). Hence, results indicated a need for research in evaluating and developing evidence-based classification in handcycling, yielding a class structure with meaningful performance differences between adjacent classes.
Nathan Waite, John Goetschius and Jakob D. Lauver
Runners experience repeated impact forces during training, and the culmination of these forces can contribute to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare peak vertical tibial acceleration (TA) in trained distance runners on 3 surface types (grass, asphalt, and concrete) and 3 grades (incline, decline, and level). During visit 1, subjects completed a 1-mile time trial to determine their pace for all running trials: 80% (5%) of the average time trial velocity. During visit 2, subjects were outfitted with a skin-mounted accelerometer and performed 18 separate running trials during which peak TA was assessed during the stance phase. Each subject ran 2 trials for each condition with 2 minutes of rest between trials. Peak TA was different between decline (8.04 [0.12] g) and incline running (7.31 [0.35] g; P = .020). On the level grade, peak TA was greater during grass (8.22 [1.22] g) compared with concrete (7.47 [1.65] g; P = .017). On the incline grade, grass (7.68 [1.44] g) resulted in higher peak TA than asphalt (6.99 [1.69] g; P = .030). These results suggest that under certain grade conditions grass may result in higher TA compared with either concrete or asphalt.