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Jianwei Duan, Kuan Wang, Tongbo Chang, Lejun Wang, Shengnian Zhang and Wenxin Niu

There is little research related to the biomechanical effects of Tai Chi on the hip joint. This study was aimed to analyze the biomechanical characteristic of a typical Tai Chi movement, Brush Knee and Twist Step. A total of 12 experienced older men voluntarily participated in this study. Each participant was requested to perform standard Brush Knee and Twist Step and normal walking. The scaled-generic musculoskeletal model of each participant was developed. A finite element model of the hip joint and pelvis was established and validated. Data from each trail were input to the model for simulation, and the biomechanics were compared between Brush Knee and Twist Step and walking. Compared with walking, Tai Chi may have better improvement in the range of motion of the hip joint and the coordination of the neuromuscular system under safer condition. It is suitable for patients with hip osteoarthritis and the older adults with severe muscle loss, and clinical studies are required to confirm it further.

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William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

Background: The literature on whole of system approaches (WSAs) has been largely theoretical in focus. The Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity is a national project designed to contribute a practical implementation focus to such approaches at the population level. Methods: National meetings were convened with federal and state government sector stakeholders to identify physical activity (PA) related policies and programs. Policies and programs were audited to develop an understanding of the existing PA system. A WSA conceptual map for PA was developed using feedback from system stakeholders, existing WSAs, and related work in obesity. Results: Completion of the policy audit has revealed key areas of need regarding policy governance, coordination, financing, and evaluation. An initial WSA conceptual map for Australia has been developed incorporating governance, translation, and advocacy. Stakeholder co-production of an integrated framework for PA and design plans for a community of practice knowledge hub has commenced. Conclusions: In Australia, Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity project partners have developed a conceptual whole of systems map that is guiding progress beyond the theoretical to application in the real world: a national PA policy audit, co-production of an integrated PA policy framework, and planning for a PA community of practice knowledge hub.

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

Purpose: This study determines the effect of movement games on executive function among overweight children. Methods: Forty-four overweight children received an intervention of movement games, and 40 overweight children participated in original physical education lessons. An intervention of movement games was conducted three times a week for 8 consecutive weeks. Neuropsychological tasks and the Stroop and determination tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Results: The results indicated that movement games enhanced the children’s performance in the inhibitory control and attentional function, particularly in the interference tendency condition, whereas no performance improvement was noted in the original physical education lessons. Conclusion: The findings indicate that movement games can be utilized as a useful intervention for improving the attentional and inhibitory problems of overweight children. School authorities should consider incorporating these activities into programs related to physical and health education.

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Aiko Sakurai, Kengo Harato, Yutaro Morishige, Shu Kobayashi, Yasuo Niki and Takeo Nagura

Context: Toe direction is an important factor affecting knee biomechanics during various movements. However, it is still unknown whether toe direction will affect trunk and pelvic movements. Objective: To examine and clarify the effects of toe directions on biomechanics of trunk and pelvis as well as lower-extremities during single-leg drop landing (SLDL). Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: A total of 27 male recreational-level athletes. Intervention(s): Subjects performed SLDL under 3 different toe directions, including 0° (toe neutral), 20° (toe-in [TI]), and −20° (toe-out). SLDL was captured using a motion analysis system. Nondominant leg (27 left) was chosen for the analysis. Main Outcome Measures: Peak values of kinematic and kinetic parameters during landing phase were assessed. In addition, those parameters at the timing of peak vertical ground reaction force were also assessed. The data were statistically compared among 3 different toe directions using 1-way repeated measures of analysis of variance or Friedman χ2 r test. Results: Peak knee abduction angle and moment in TI were significantly larger than in toe neutral and toe-out (P < .001). Moreover, peak greater anterior inclination, greater inclination, and rotation of trunk and pelvis toward the nonlanding side were seen in TI (P < .001). At the timing of peak vertical ground reaction force, trunk inclined to the landing side with larger knee abduction angle in TI (P < .001). Conclusions: Several previous studies suggested that larger knee abduction angle and moment on landing side as well as trunk and pelvic inclinations during landing tasks were correlated with knee ligament injury. However, it is still unknown concerning the relationship between toe direction and trunk/pelvis movements during landing tasks. From the present study, TI during SLDL would strongly affect biomechanics of trunk and pelvis as well as knee joint, compared with toe neutral and toe-out.

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Murat Tomruk, Melda Soysal Tomruk, Emrullah Alkan and Nihal Gelecek

Context: Ankle proprioception is one of the crucial components contributing to postural control. Although the effects of Mulligan’s mobilization with movement (MWM) on postural control, ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), and muscle strength in people with ankle disorders have previously been investigated, it is still unclear whether ankle MWM had ability to change postural control, DFROM, and muscle strength. Objectives: To reveal pure effects of MWM on postural control, ankle DFROM, and muscle strength in healthy individuals. Design: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled study. Setting: Musculoskeletal laboratory, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey. Participants: Forty students in good health recruited from a local university. Interventions: Mulligan’s MWM or sham application over ankle joint. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was postural control and measured using limits of stability (LOS) test. The secondary outcomes were tibialis anterior muscle strength and ankle DFROM, which were measured using handheld dynamometer and weight-bearing lunge test, respectively. All outcomes were assessed before and immediately after intervention. Results: Left and right ankle DFROM and LOS overall score showed a statistically significant improvement compared with first measurement in both groups (P < .05). However, LOS time was significantly improved only in the MWM group (P < .05). Statistical analyses of between-group mean differences showed that Mulligan’s MWM provided significant improvement in the LOS in forward–right direction compared with sham application (P = .03). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the application of Mulligan’s MWM on ankle joint might be beneficial to improve postural control in forward right direction in individuals with healthy ankles. On the other hand, both MWM and sham application were able to increase overall postural control and DFROM, and MWM had no superiority over sham application for increasing these 2 variables.

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

Purpose: To describe the influence of negotiations on instruction when preservice teachers taught elementary students using a skill theme approach. Methods: Participants were nine preservice teachers from one physical education teacher education program enrolled in a 9-week early field experience. They taught kindergarten, first-, and second-grade students (N = 203). Constructs from the ecology paradigm and previous research on negotiations guided data collection and analysis. Data were collected through nonparticipant observation, informal interviews, critical incident reflections, document analysis, and formal interviews. Deductive and inductive qualitative techniques were employed to code and categorize the data. Findings: A unique and mainly positive pattern of negotiations was revealed as were some new forms of negotiation. Students were also shown to initiate negative negotiations to change content they perceived as gender inappropriate. Conclusion: These findings could be used as the basis for educating preservice teachers to negotiate more effectively when teaching by skill themes.

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Glynn M. McGehee, Beth A. Cianfrone and Timothy Kellison

Sport organizations, the media, and the public frequently interact. Messages conveyed by organizations and the media likely impact both groups’ communication strategies to reach target audiences and control messaging. This triad of communication—team–media–public—is often examined in segments (e.g., media framing or public reaction to media), even though the three interact. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine differences in message themes and responses from all perspectives on a common topic. Following a major announcement from a professional sport organization, the researchers conducted a content analysis of communication from three perspectives: the team, local press, and citizens. The results showed that each of the three sources provided distinct, original content that became increasingly linked to that of the other sources over time. Sport practitioners could use the findings to better understand the influence of outside sources of communication and utilize social media in their public relations efforts.

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Wesley J. Wilson, Luke E. Kelly and Justin A. Haegele

Purpose: To examine how physical educators and adapted physical educators make decisions regarding the implementation of the least restrictive environment law and what factors influence those practices. Methods: This study utilized a descriptive survey design through an online platform. Participants included 78 teachers (30 physical educators and 48 adapted physical educators). Descriptive statistics and group comparisons through a multivariate analysis of variance were conducted. Results: A significant difference in the implementation of the law between physical educators and adapted physical educators was detected, F(44, 33) = 2.60, p = .003; Wilk’s Λ = .224, ηp2=.78. Adapted physical educators were more involved in making decisions regarding the individualized education program process and student placement. Access to qualified staff was reported as a major barrier to implementation. Discussion/Conclusion: The implementation of the least restrictive environment law and its barriers are discussed.

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Langston Clark

In this autoethnography, I utilized the concepts of otherfathering, social capital, and testimonio (i.e., testimonial) to explicate the need for and value of Black male mentors in physical education teacher education (PETE). To do so, I describe how three of my mentors operated as otherfathers by imbuing me with the social capital needed to be successful in academia. I conclude by arguing for specific intersectional efforts to support Black men and Black women in PETE, along with the establishment of organizational efforts, to meet the needs of Black professionals in PETE.

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and K. Andrew R. Richards

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the patterns of teacher–student negotiation that occurred when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. Method: The participants were seven PTs enrolled in an elementary early field experience. They taught three to four mini-units of TPSR. Seven qualitative techniques were employed to collect data, and standard interpretive techniques were used to analyze them. Results: Three general patterns of negotiation were identified. In the units taught by two of the PTs, the negotiations became more positive. For three of the PTs, the rates of negotiation were constant. In the units taught by the remaining two PTs, the negotiations became more negative. Key factors influencing the patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. Conclusion: These findings may help faculty develop more nuanced and effective training for PTs learning to teach through TPSR.