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Michael A. Hemphill and Tom Martinek

Cross-aged teaching programs provide leadership experiences to youth who aim to influence children to be responsible, caring, and compassionate. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a leadership development protocol on relationship development in an established cross-aged teaching program. Method: Guided by the developmental relationships framework, “Simple Interactions” was implemented with a group of nine youth leaders. The intent was to help them improve their relationships with children in four categories (a) connection, (b) reciprocity, (c) participation, and (d) progression. Data were collected through reflection documents and focus group interviews. Results: Qualitative results explain how Simple Interactions impacted reflection and revealed strategies youth leaders used to build relationships with children. Discussion: The findings suggest that the Simple Interactions protocol may provide an innovative strategy to promote reflective practice and develop positive relationships in a cross-aged teaching program.

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

The purpose of this study was to examine the classification experiences (perspectives and reflections) of paraswimmers. Classification provides a structure for parasport, with the goal of reducing the impact of impairment on the outcome of competition. Guided by interpretive description, nine paraswimmers ranging in swimming experience and sport class were interviewed. Reflective notes were also collected. Transcribed interviews were analyzed inductively, followed by a deductive analysis using Nordenfelt’s dignity framework. Three themes represent the findings: access, diversity, and (un)certainty. Despite several positive experiences, paraswimmers also discussed inconsistencies in the process leading them to question competition fairness and classification accuracy. These findings suggest that continued efforts to improve the classification system are required. In addition, paraswimmers and their allies (e.g., coaches) require more information about the classification process to better understand the outcomes and to effectively advocate for their needs.

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William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

Background: The literature on whole of system approaches (WSAs) has been largely theoretical in focus. The Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity is a national project designed to contribute a practical implementation focus to such approaches at the population level. Methods: National meetings were convened with federal and state government sector stakeholders to identify physical activity (PA) related policies and programs. Policies and programs were audited to develop an understanding of the existing PA system. A WSA conceptual map for PA was developed using feedback from system stakeholders, existing WSAs, and related work in obesity. Results: Completion of the policy audit has revealed key areas of need regarding policy governance, coordination, financing, and evaluation. An initial WSA conceptual map for Australia has been developed incorporating governance, translation, and advocacy. Stakeholder co-production of an integrated framework for PA and design plans for a community of practice knowledge hub has commenced. Conclusions: In Australia, Australian Systems Approaches to Physical Activity project partners have developed a conceptual whole of systems map that is guiding progress beyond the theoretical to application in the real world: a national PA policy audit, co-production of an integrated PA policy framework, and planning for a PA community of practice knowledge hub.

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James Hackney, Jade McFarland, David Smith and Clinton Wallis

Most studies of high-speed lower body movements include practice repetitions for facilitating consistency between the trials. We investigated whether 20 repetitions of drop landing (from a 30.5-cm platform onto a force plate) could improve consistency in maximum ground reaction force, linear lower body stiffness, depth of landing, and jump height in 20 healthy, young adults. Coefficient of variation was the construct for variability used to compare the first to the last five repetitions for each variable. We found that the practice had the greatest effect on maximum ground reaction force (p = .017), and had smaller and similar effects on lower body stiffness and depth of landing (p values = .074 and .044, respectively), and no measurable effect on jump height. These findings suggest that the effect of practice on drop landing differs depending upon the variable measure and that 20 repetitions significantly improve consistency in ground reaction force.

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Philip Furley, Fanny Thrien, Johannes Klinge and Jannik Dörr

The goal of the present research was to investigate whether claims (postperformance nonverbal emotional expressions) influence people in evaluating performance during surf contests. To test this research question, the authors sampled videos from professional surf contests and asked laypeople (Experiment 1; N = 110) and surf judges (Experiment 2; N = 41) to evaluate the performance in 2 online experiments. A subset of the surfing performances showed surfers displaying postperformance emotional expressions (claims), while another subset showed the same performances without the claims (nonverbal emotional expressions). Both experiments provided evidence that both laypeople and surf judges were biased by claims in judging surfing performances, with claims better than the performances without claims. The findings are in line with social-cognitive models emphasizing the socioconsequences of emotion expressions. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for sport competitions that rely on judging sport performance.

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Jason Brumitt, Jill Sikkema, Saiko Mair, CJ Zita, Victor Wilson and Jordan Petersen

Functional performance tests, such as the Y Balance Test–Lower Quarter (YBT-LQ), hold promise as screening tools to identify athletes at risk for injury. The ability of the YBT-LQ to discriminate injury risk in Division III collegiate athletes is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if preseason YBT-LQ scores are associated with noncontact time-loss lower-quadrant (low back or lower extremities) injury in a heterogeneous population of Division III collegiate athletes. Two hundred and fourteen athletes (females = 104) performed the YBT-LQ test. Preseason YBT-LQ scores, analyzed by the total population, were not associated with noncontact time-loss lower-quadrant injury. Females with greater reach scores in some directions did have a significantly greater risk of injury. This study adds to a growing body of research demonstrating that the YBT-LQ should not be used as a preseason screening tool.

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Stefanie Klatt and Nicholas J. Smeeton

In 2 experiments, the authors investigated the effects of bimodal integration in a sport-specific task. Beach volleyball players were required to make a tactical decision, responding either verbally or via a motor response, after being presented with visual, auditory, or both kinds of stimuli in a beach volleyball scenario. In Experiment 1, players made the correct decision in a game situation more often when visual and auditory information were congruent than in trials in which they experienced only one of the modalities or incongruent information. Decision-making accuracy was greater when motor, rather than verbal, responses were given. Experiment 2 replicated this congruence effect using different stimulus material and showed a decreasing effect of visual stimulation on decision making as a function of shorter visual stimulus durations. In conclusion, this study shows that bimodal integration of congruent visual and auditory information results in more accurate decision making in sport than unimodal information.

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Kayla E. Boehm, Blaine C. Long, Mitchell T. Millar and Kevin C. Miller

Effectiveness of Kinesiology Tex Tape (KTT) is conflicting, with some clinicians supporting and others refuting its effects. There is limited information on the psychological effects of KTT or whether its increased use has been influenced by professional athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological, psychological, and use of KTT. A descriptive survey on the use of KTT was performed with athletic trainers and other health care providers. Many reported that KTT benefited patients physiologically and psychologically. Those who thought KTT provided a physiological benefit indicated that they use it. Many indicated KTT benefited patients psychologically, without impacting them physiologically. In addition, clinicians indicated KTT use has been influenced by professional athletes.