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Bente M. Raafs, Esther G.A. Karssemeijer, Lizzy Van der Horst, Justine A. Aaronson, Marcel G.M. Olde Rikkert and Roy P.C. Kessels

The current meta-analysis first aimed to quantify the overall effect of physical exercise training on the quality of life (QoL) in healthy older adults. Second, the effects on the social, physical, and psychological QoL were assessed. In total, 16 randomized controlled trials were included. The primary analysis showed a medium effect of physical exercise training on QoL in healthy older adults (standard mean difference [SMD] = 0.38, confidence interval, CI, [0.18, 0.59], p < .05). The secondary analyses showed a positive medium effect of physical exercise training on the physical component of QoL (SMD = 0.39, CI [0.17, 0.60], p < .05), and a positive medium effect of physical exercise training on the psychological component of QoL (SMD = 0.348, CI [0.125, 0.570], p < .05), and no significant effect of physical exercise training on the social component of QoL was observed (SMD = 0.16, CI [−0.07, 0.38], p = .17). These findings warrant implementation efforts pertaining to exercise training for older adults to improve the QoL in our aging societies.

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Abby R. Fleming, Nic Martinez, Larry H. Collins, Candi D. Ashley, Maureen Chiodini, Brian J. Waddell and Marcus W. Kilpatrick

High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is highly beneficial for health and fitness and is well tolerated. Treadmill-based HIIT normally includes running interspersed with walking. The purpose of this study was to compare ungraded running and graded walking HIIT on perceived exertion, affective valence, and enjoyment. Thirty-four active, healthy adults completed maximal testing and two 20-min HIIT trials alternating between 85% of VO2peak and a comfortable walking speed. Affective valence, enjoyment, and perceived exertion, both overall (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]-O) and legs only (RPE-L), were measured. RPE-O and affective valence were similar between HIIT trials (p > .05), RPE-L was higher for walk HIIT (p < .05), and enjoyment was higher for run HIIT (p < .05). Findings indicate that both walk and run HIIT produce exertion, affective, and enjoyment responses that are positive and possibly supportive of exercise behavior. Walk HIIT may be desirable for individuals who are unable or do not want to run.

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Bethany Forseth and Stacy D. Hunter

Background: There is limited research examining the intensity of yoga and intensity variations between different styles. The purpose of this review is to examine the intensity of yoga based on different physiologic responses both between different yoga styles and within styles of yoga. Methods: Articles were searched for on the PubMed database in early 2019. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) written in English, (2) cite a specific style of yoga and include whole yoga session, and (3) measure metabolic or heart rate response. Results: Ten articles were reviewed; articles reported oxygen consumption (n = 1), heart rate (n = 4), or both variables (n = 5). Yoga styles assessed included ashtanga (n = 2), Bikram (n = 3), gentle (n = 1), hatha (n = 3), Iyengar (n = 1), power (n = 1), and vinyasa (n = 1). Oxygen consumption commonly categorized yoga as a light-intensity activity, while heart rate responses classified different yoga into multiple intensities. Conclusion: This review demonstrates that large differences in intensity classifications are observed between different styles of yoga. Furthermore, metabolic and heart rate responses can be variable, leading to inconsistent intensity classifications. This is likely due to their nonlinear relationship during yoga. Thus, it is imperative that the field of yoga research works together to create a standard for reporting yoga.

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

Despite considerable advances in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury-risk identification and prevention over the past 20 years, the annual incidence of ACL injury has continued to rise, and females remain at greater risk of both primary and secondary ACL injury. Important questions remain regarding ancillary risk factors we should target, the most effective training and rehabilitation approaches to ensure retention and transfer of learned skills from the rehabilitation setting to real-world sporting environment, and the development of more evidence-based criteria for return to sport that consider the whole athlete. As we look to the future, the optimization of primary and secondary ACL-injury prevention represents a complex, multidisciplinary problem with many unique and exciting opportunities to engage the various subdisciplines of kinesiology to address these emerging questions.

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Justin J. Merrigan, James J. Tufano, Jonathan M. Oliver, Jason B. White, Jennifer B. Fields and Margaret T. Jones

Purpose: To examine rest redistribution (RR) effects on back squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. Methods: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 [2.2] y training history) participated in the randomized crossover design study with 72 hours between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (120-s interset rest) and RR (30-s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90-s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1 to 3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [(repetition 10–peak repetition)/(peak repetition) × 100], and maintenance, {100–[(set mean–peak repetition)/(peak repetition)] × 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (P < .05). Results: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition × repetition interaction existed for peak power (P = .049) but not for peak velocity (P = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7 to 9 (P < .05; d = 1.12–1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (95% confidence interval, –0.22% to –7.22%; P = .039) and power (95% confidence interval, –1.53% to –7.87%; P = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (P = .036; d = 1.90) and 4 (P = .015; d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (P = .006; d = 2.65) were greater in RR. Conclusion: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.

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Peter Hastie

This paper identifies several factors that lie within and external to the teaching act that have an impact on the quality of instruction that students can potentially receive, which in turn has implications for the extent to which students can engage in appropriate practice. These factors all exist on a continuum from limiting to enhancing, and we could hypothesize that they regulate the possibilities for practice that are afforded to students and that this practice time is considered in the development of competent movers in physical education. These factors are contextual, such as time, class size, and teaching resources; curricular, relating to the content and pedagogy of physical education; and instructional, such as teacher effectiveness and content knowledge.

Open access

Amy R. Barchek, Shelby E. Baez, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

Clinical Scenario: Physical activity is vital for human health. Musculoskeletal injury may inhibit adults from participating in physical activity, and this amount may be less than adults without a history of musculoskeletal injury. Clinical Question: Do individuals with a history of ankle or knee musculoskeletal injury participate in less objectively measured physical activity compared with healthy controls? Summary of Key Findings: Four studies were included. Two studies concluded patients who have undergone an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity levels when compared with healthy controls, but still achieved the daily recommended amount of physical activity. One study determined that participants with CAI took fewer steps per day compared with the control group. The fourth study determined patients with patellofemoral pain were less physically active than healthy controls as they took fewer steps per day and spent less time participating in mild and high activity. Clinical Bottom Line: There is consistent, high quality evidence that demonstrates individuals with a history of ankle or knee musculoskeletal injury participate in less objectively measured physical activity compared with healthy individuals. Strength of Recommendation: Due to nature of study designs of the included articles in this critically appraised topic, we recommend a grade of 3B.

Open access

Dawn T. Gulick

Background: Knee disorders prevalence is estimated at more than 50% in a lifetime. There are over 250,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries per year in the United States. There are over 175,000 ACL reconstructions annually. This study was a double-blinded design to establish the reliability and validity of a new orthopedic device to measure linear translation of the tibia on the femur (ACL testing). Methods: A Zeiss Smartzoom microscope was used as the gold standard to assess the ability of the Mobil-Aider to measure linear translation. Sixty blinded measures were taken with each of 6 different devices. Results: Both the intraclass correlation and the Pearson correlation were .986. The Cronbach alpha reliability analysis was 0.992. Independent 1-sample t tests were performed on the differences between the Mobil-Aider and Zeiss values, and were not found to be significant (P = .42); that is, they were the same. Bland–Altman plot and a linear regression revealed no propositional bias. Finally, with 360 measures over 6 devices, the power of this study was calculated to be 100%. Discussion: This data are the first step in establishing reliability and concurrent validity of a new device. As a result of the current data, the Mobil-Aider device is deemed a promising orthopedic tool for use in assessing the laxity of the ACL. Additional testing needs to be performed on both healthy and injured knees. Conclusions: There is potential for the Mobil-Aider to contribute to the assessment of ACL injuries, but additional human testing is needed.

Open access

Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

Objectives: The current study assessed the intrasession and intersession reliability of the knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and healthy individuals. Study Design: University research laboratory. Methods: Kinematic data were collected in 14 patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency and 14 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill at a self-selected, low, and high speed, with and without cognitive load. The intraclass correlation coefficient, standard error of measurement, minimal metrically detectable change, and percentage of coefficient of variation were calculated to assess the reliability. Results: The knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent had high intrasession reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .83 to .98. In addition, the intersession intraclass correlation coefficient values of these measurements ranged from .35 to .85 regardless of group, gait speed, and dual tasking. In general, relative and absolute reliability were higher in the patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency than in the healthy individuals. Conclusions: Although knee flexion–extension Lyapunov exponent demonstrates good intrasession reliability, its low intersession reliability indicates that changes of these measurements between different days should be interpreted with caution.

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Judith Godin, Joanna M. Blodgett, Kenneth Rockwood and Olga Theou

The authors sought to examine how much sedentary time needs to be replaced by light or moderate–vigorous physical activity in order to reduce frailty and protect against mortality. The authors built isotemporal substitution models to assess the theoretical effect of replacing sedentary behavior with an equal amount of light or moderate–vigorous activity on frailty and mortality in community-based adults aged 50 years and older. Controlling for age, sex, body mass index, marital status, race, education, employment status, and National Health and Nutrition Examination Study cycle, replacing 1 hr of sedentary time with moderate–vigorous or light physical activity daily was associated with a lower frailty index. For mortality, results varied based on frailty level. Replacing sedentary behavior with moderate–vigorous exercise was associated with lower mortality risk in vulnerable individuals; however, replacing sedentary behavior with light activity was associated with lower mortality risk in frailer individuals.