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Wesley J. Wilson, Ali Brian and Luke E. Kelly

Novice teachers struggle with assessing fundamental motor skills. With growing time constraints, not to mention the current COVID-19 pandemic, professional development needs to be streamlined, asynchronous, and online to meet the needs of current teachers. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of the Motor Skill Assessment Program (MSAP) in increasing the assessment competency of the underhand roll among physical educators and to examine which factors associated with posttest assessment scores. Twenty-nine physical educators (female = 21, male = 8) completed the program. Paired sample t tests were used to determine the efficacy of the program in improving assessment accuracy from pretest to posttest. Associations between posttest scores assessed which factors predicted success within the program addressing feasibility. Program completion resulted in significantly better posttest assessment scores among participants. Guided practice attempts and average scores on guided practice tests correlated most strongly and positively with posttest scores. The assessment training program increased the assessment competency of physical educators. Guided practice and using practice tests best predicted participant learning. Now that the MSAP results with teacher learning and is feasible, this efficacy trial should be scaled up to feature a control group and more skills.

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Mariana B. Pinto, Patrícia M. Bock, Andressa S.O. Schein, Juliana Portes, Raíssa B. Monteiro, Beatriz D. Schaan and Beatriz D. Schaan

This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in glucose control and respiratory muscle function in patients with diabetes. It was a randomized clinical trial conducted at the Physiopathology Laboratory of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Patients with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to IMT or placebo-IMT (P-IMT), performed at 30% and 2% of maximal inspiratory pressure, respectively, every day for 12 weeks. The main outcome measures were HbA1c, glycemia, and respiratory muscle function. Thirty patients were included: 73.3% women, 59.6 ± 10.7 years old, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.9% (71.6 ± 9.8 mmol/mol), and glycemia 181.8 ± 57.8 mg/dl (10.5 ± 3.2 mmol/L). At the end of the training, HbA1c was 8.2 ±0.3% (66.1 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) and 8.7 ± 0.3% (71.6 ± 3.3 mmol/mol) for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively (p = .8). Fasting glycemia decreased in both groups with no difference after training although it was lower in IMT at 8 weeks: 170.0 ± 11.4 mg/dl(9.4 ± 0.6 mmol/L) and 184.4 ± 15.0 mg/dl (10.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L) for IMT and P-IMT, respectively (p < .05). Respiratory endurance time improved in the IMT group (baseline = 325.9 ± 51.1 s and 305.0 ± 37.8 s; after 12 weeks = 441.1 ± 61.7 s and 250.7 ± 39.0 s for the IMT and P-IMT groups, respectively; p < .05). Considering that glucose control did not improve, IMT should not be used as an alternative to other types of exercise in diabetes. Higher exercise intensities or longer training periods might produce better results. The clinical trials identifier is NCT 03191435.

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Adam G. Pfleegor

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Koon Teck Koh, Chunxiao Li and Swarup Mukherjee

Purpose: Information and communication technologies can enable educators in the development of innovative and contextually relevant approaches for the provision of enhanced learning experiences. This study examined preservice physical education teachers’ perceptions of a flipped learning basketball course in a physical education teacher education program. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight preservice physical education teachers (three females; M age = 23.5 years) who had completed the course. Interview data were coded using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were identified reflecting benefits, challenges, and recommendations of flipped learning: (a) facilitate student-centered learning, (b) promote self-directed learning, (c) encourage real-world application, (d) insufficient avenues to assess understanding, (e) preclass preparation too time consuming, and (f) modification of materials and structure. Discussion/Conclusion: Flipped learning can potentially enhance preservice physical education teachers’ motivation for learning and increase active learning time in the sport-based courses in physical education teacher education. The identified challenges and recommendations are valuable for physical education teacher education educators to effectively prepare and execute flipped learning-based courses.

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Matjaž Vogrin, Miloš Kalc and Teja Ličen

Context: It has been recently demonstrated that tissue flossing around the ankle joint can be effectively used to improve ankle range of motion, jump, and sprint ability. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the acute effects of tissue flossing applied using different wrapping pressures. Objective: To investigate the acute effects of tissue flossing and the degree of floss band pressure, around the upper thigh on knee range of motion, strength, and muscle contractile characteristics. Design: Crossover design in 3 distinct sessions. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: A total of 19 recreationally trained volunteers (age 23.8[4.8] y) participated in this study. Intervention: Active knee extension and flexion performed for 3 sets of 2 minutes (2-min rest between sets with wrapped upper thigh). Individualized wrapping pressures were applied to create conditions of high and moderate vascular occlusion, while a loose band application served as a control condition. Main Outcome Measures: Participants were assessed for active straight leg raise test; tensiomyography displacement and contraction time for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris muscles; and maximum voluntary contractions for knee extensors and flexors for pre, after, and 30 minutes after applying the floss band. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in maximum voluntary contractions for knee extensors and a significant shortening in rectus femoris contraction time for the moderate condition, which was associated with small to medium effects in favor of the moderate condition. There were no statistically significant changes observed between control and high conditions. The active straight leg raise test was unaffected regardless of intervention. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that tissue flossing around the upper thigh might have a localized as well as pressure-sensitive response, thereby improving neuromuscular function of the knee extensors.

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Holly M. Bush, Justin M. Stanek, Joshua D. Wooldridge, Stephanie L. Stephens and Jessica S. Barrack

Context: Limited dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) is commonly observed in both the athletic and general populations and is a predisposing factor for lower extremity injury. Graston Technique® (GT) is a form of instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM), used commonly to increase ROM. Evidence of the long-term effects of GT on ROM is lacking, particularly comparing the full GT protocol versus IASTM alone. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of 6 sessions of the GT or IASTM compared with a control (CON) group for increasing closed-chain DF ROM. Design: Cohort design with randomization. Setting: Athletic training clinic. Patients or OtherParticipants: A total of 23 physically active participants (37 limbs) with <34° of DF. Participants’ limbs were randomly allocated to the GT, IASTM, or CON group. Intervention: Participants’ closed-chain DF ROM (standing and kneeling) were assessed at baseline and 24–48 hours following their sixth treatment. Participants in the CON group were measured at baseline and 3 weeks later. The intervention groups received 6 treatments during a 3-week period, whereas the CON group received no treatment. The GT group received a warm-up, instrument application, stretching, and strengthening of the triceps surae. The IASTM group received a warm-up and instrument application. Main Outcome Measures: Closed-chain DF was assessed with a digital inclinometer in standing and kneeling. Results: A significant difference between groups was found in the standing position (P = .03) but not in kneeling (P = .15). Post hoc testing showed significant improvements in DF in standing following the GT compared with the control (P = .02). Conclusions: The GT significantly increases ankle DF following 6 treatments in participants with DF ROM deficits; however, no differences were found between GT and IASTM. The GT may be an effective intervention for clinicians to consider when treating patients with DF deficits.

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Alyssa Dittmer, David Tomchuk and David R. Fontenot

Context: Rounded shoulder posture is a common problem in the athletic population. Recently Kinesio tape has been utilized to improve balance, proprioception, and posture. However, the literature has been unable to provide definitive answers on the efficacy of Kinesio tape use. Objective: To determine the immediate effect of the limb rotational Kinesio tape application on the dynamic balance and proprioception of the shoulder measured by the Y-Balance Upper Quarter Test (YBT-UQ) in male collegiate athletes. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory.Participants: Nineteen healthy male collegiate National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics athletes (including rodeo, baseball, football, and soccer) with a mean age of 19.8 (1.4) years. Interventions: Subjects were randomized into Kinesio tape and non-Kinesio tape groups. The limb rotational Kinesio tape application was applied to the Kinesio tape group, while the non-Kinesio tape group received no intervention. Each group performed the YBT-UQ, which requires reaching in 3 directions in a push-up position, before and after the randomized intervention on a single day. Main Outcome Measures: The variables of interest included the maximum reach distance in each of the 3 directions and the composite score for both trials between the Kinesio tape and non-Kinesio tape groups. Each score was normalized against the subject’s limb length. Results: No statistically significant improvements in any YBT-UQ scores were observed following either the Kinesio tape or non-Kinesio tape intervention. Conclusions: Applying the limb rotational Kinesio tape technique did not improve immediate YBT-UQ scores in a male collegiate athletic population with rounded shoulder posture. The use of Kinesio tape to improve immediate closed kinetic chain function in male collegiate athletes with rounded shoulder posture cannot be supported.

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Neal R. Glaviano and David M. Bazett-Jones

Context: Hip muscle strength has previously been evaluated in various sagittal plane testing positions. Altering the testing position appears to have an influence on hip muscle torque during hip extension, abduction, and external rotation. However, it is unknown how altering the testing position influences hip muscle activity during these commonly performed assessments. Objectives: To evaluate how hip sagittal plane position influences hip muscle activation and torque output. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 22 healthy females (age = 22.1 [1.4] y; mass = 63.4 [11.3] kg; height = 168.4 [6.2] cm) were recruited. Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: Participants completed isometric contractions with surface electromyography on the superior and inferior gluteus maximus; anterior, middle, and posterior gluteus medius; biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor longus, and tensor fascia latae. Extension and external rotation were tested in 0°, 45°, and 90° of hip flexion and abduction was tested in −5°, 0°, and 45° of hip flexion. Repeated-measures analysis of variances were used for statistical analysis (P ≤ .01). Results: Activation of gluteal (P < .007), semitendinosus (P = .002), and adductor longus (P = .001) muscles were lesser for extension at 90° versus less flexed positions. Adductor longus activity was greatest during 90° of hip flexion for external rotation torque testing (P < .001). Tensor fascia latae (P < .001) and gluteus maximus (P < .001) activities were greater in 45° of hip flexion. Significant differences in extension (P < .001) and abduction (P < .001) torque were found among positions. Conclusions: Position when assessing hip extension and abduction torque has an influence on both muscle activity and torque output but only muscle activity for hip external rotation torque. Clinicians should be aware of the influence of position on hip extension, abduction, and external rotation muscle testing and select a position most in line with their clinical goals.