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Kwok W. Ng, Gorden Sudeck, Adilson Marques, Alberto Borraccino, Zuzana Boberova, Jana Vasickova, Riki Tesler, Sami Kokko and Oddrun Samdal

Background: Regular physical activity and doing well in school are important for growing adolescents. In this study, the associations between physical activity and perceived school performance (PSP) are examined together. Methods: Young adolescents from 42 countries (n = 193,949) in Europe and Canada were examined for associations between self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and PSP. Multinominal analyses were conducted with 0 to 2 days of MVPA and below average PSP as reference categories. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported for pooled data and individual countries after controlling for family affluence scale. Results: Girls had better PSP than boys, yet more boys participated in daily MVPA than girls. The associations between PSP and MVPA were inverted U shaped. The strongest association for very good PSP was among young adolescents who reported 5 to 6 days MVPA (odds ratios = 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.1–2.4) after controlling for family affluence scale. Conclusions: Young adolescents with average or better PSP took part in at least 3 days of MVPA in a week, suggesting that participating in some MVPA was positively associated with PSP. More days of MVPA in a week, especially for young adolescents with below average PSP, would be beneficial for health and school performance.

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Kim Gammage, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, Desi McEwan and Kathleen Wilson

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Nicholas L. Lerma, Chi C. Cho, Ann M. Swartz, Hotaka Maeda, Young Cho and Scott J. Strath

The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a seated pedaling device to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the homes of older adults. Methods: Each participant (N = 20) was outfitted with an activity monitor and seated pedaling device in the home for 7 days and randomly assigned to one of four light-intensity pedaling groups (15, 30, 45, and 60 min/day). Results: There was 100% adherence in all groups and significant group differences in the minutes pedaled per day (p < .001), with no significant difference in the total pedaling days completed (p = .241). The 15-, 30-, 45-, and 60-min groups experienced a 4.0%, 5.4%, 10.6%, and 11.3% reduction in SB on the days pedaled, respectively. Conclusion: Clinically relevant reductions in SB time were achievable in this 1-week trial. Long-term adherence and the impact of replacing SB with seated light activities on geriatric-relevant health outcomes should be investigated.

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Chonticha Kaewjoho, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Lugkana Mato, Saowanee Nakmaroeng, Supaporn Phadungkit and Sugalya Amatachaya

This single-blind, randomized controlled trial compared the effects of Thai dance exercise training on hard, soft, and sand surfaces on the functional outcomes of 120 community-dwelling older adults (40 subjects/group). The subjects were involved in a Thai dance exercise program on each surface, according to their groups, for 50 min/day, 3 days/week, for 6 weeks. The functional outcomes were assessed prior to training, at Week 3, and Week 6 after training. Subjects showed a significant improvement in all functional tests at 3 and 6 weeks after training, particularly in those who were trained on a sand surface and a soft surface (7–30% improvement, p < .05). The improvement was especially demonstrated in the complex and demanding motor activities after exercise on a soft and sand surface. Aside from attempting to modify training programs on a hard surface, the current findings suggest an alternative and cost-effective program to promote the levels of independence and safety that can be applied easily in clinical, home-based, and community settings.

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Hsin-Yen Yen and Hsuan Hsu

Engaging in healthy eating and active living is an effective strategy for preventing noncommunicable diseases in older populations. The purposes were to compare the prevalence rates across countries and explore health factors associated with healthy eating and active living. The data were retrieved from a cross-sectional study conducted by the International Social Survey Program (2011 Health and Healthcare), with structured questionnaire surveys in 32 countries. The results showed that 38.42% reported active living and 39.11% reported healthy eating among 11,250 total respondents. Older adults with a long-standing illness or obesity who felt that they were not overcoming problems and had lost confidence were less likely to engage in healthy behavior. Perceived general health had a positive association with the odds of engaging in healthy eating and active living. The international comparisons provide a reference for local governments to decrease health disparities. Inspiring self-awareness about health might encourage older adults to pursue healthy lifestyles.

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Susan G. Zieff and Claudia M. Guedes

Physical activity (PA) is a proven strategy for reducing risk of chronic disease. Many older adults do not reach recommended levels of activity to achieve health benefits. There is growing interest among scholars and practitioners about the potential of technology to increase PA and improve health. This study investigated knowledge of, attitudes toward, and experiences with PA technology among a sample of older adults to determine potential for use in interventions. Overall, participants indicated that they learned about their levels of PA, held positive attitudes toward, and reported good experiences with PA technology, including desired behavior change. Negative outcomes included concerns about risk from using PA technology. Outcomes from this study suggest the need for updated views of older adults and technology and potential health benefits from using PA technology.

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Alvaro Sicilia, Manuel Alcaraz-Ibáñez, Delia C. Dumitru, Adrian Paterna and Mark D. Griffiths

Fitness-related self-conscious emotions (SCEs) have been proposed as antecedents of exercise addiction (EA). However, the potential mechanisms underlying such a relationship remain unexplored. The present study examined the relationship between fitness-related SCEs and risk of EA, as well as the mediating role of passion for exercise. A total of 296 male runners (M = 40.35 years, SD = 10.69) completed a survey assessing weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs, passion for exercise, and the risk of EA. The relationships between the study variables were examined using structural equation modeling. After controlling for age and weekly exercise frequency/hours, fitness-related SCEs of shame, guilt, and hubristic pride were positively associated with risk of EA. However, while guilt had direct effects on risk of EA, shame and hubristic pride showed indirect effects via obsessive passion. The results of the study are discussed, and some practical implications and future research directions are presented.

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Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan

Locker rooms operate as pivotal access points to physical activity across sports, physical education, and fitness facilities. However, locker rooms are predicated on cis-heterosexual assumptions that can be isolating to LGBTQ+ individuals. Using an online cross-sectional survey, LGBTQ+ adults (N = 1,067) were asked open-response questions about their past and present locker-room experiences. The resulting texts were independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis and compared. All discrepancies were discussed with and rectified by a third researcher who acted as a critical peer. The results present distinct experiences across three intersecting aspects of embodiment: self-conscious—“I hate(d) being seen,” sexual transgression, and gender transgression. The findings provide insight into how harmful LGBTQ+ stereotypes influence locker-room experiences and support the redesign of locker rooms to challenge the binary organization of these spaces.

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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion and Patrick Gaudreau

The aim of this research was to test if the ways passionate sport fans respond immediately after an important team victory depend on the extent to which passion is harmonious or obsessive. Fans of Liverpool F.C. (n = 299) and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (n = 334) completed online surveys shortly after their teams had won an important championship game. Fans answered questions assessing passion and the extent to which they engaged in savoring (i.e., attempting to maintain, augment, or prolong positive emotions) and dampening (i.e., attempting to stifle positive emotions) after the victory. In both samples, the authors found that both harmonious and obsessive passion predicted greater savoring, but only obsessive passion predicted greater dampening. These findings build on previous research and suggest an additional reason for which harmonious and obsessive passion among sport fans tend to predict more and less adaptive outcomes, respectively.

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Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay

Objective: To determine the optimal threshold, based on cadence and lifestyle counts per minute, to detect outdoor walking in mobility-limited older adults. Methods: Older adults (N = 25, median age: 77.0 years, interquartile range: 10.5) wore activity monitors during 80 outdoor walks. Walking bouts were identified manually (reference standard) and compared with identification using cadence thresholds (≥30, ≥35, ≥40, ≥45, and ≥50 steps/min) and >760 counts per minute using low frequency extension analysis. Results: Median walking bout duration was 10.5 min (interquartile range 4.8) and median outdoor walking speed was 0.70 m/s (interquartile range 0.20). Cadence thresholds of ≥30, ≥35, and ≥40 steps/min demonstrated high sensitivity (1.0, 95% confidence intervals [0.95, 1.0]) to detect walking bouts; estimates for specificity and positive predictive value were highest for ≥40 steps/min. Conclusion: A cadence threshold of ≥40 steps/min is recommended for detecting sustained outdoor walking in this population.