The purpose of this study was to document the lived experiences of professional cricketers who had encountered a career-ending non-musculoskeletal injury. Three male cricketers each with over nine years of playing experience in professional cricket representing England and Wales participated in retrospective in-depth semi-structured interviews. The Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis revealed that at the time of the injury, the participants were at the “final stretch” of their professional sporting careers and that despite a range of unpleasant reactions to injury, all participants experienced a healthy career transition out of sport. To best prepare athletes for a life outside of sport, ensuring athletes have sufficient plans in motion early on in their careers can reduce external and internal stressors, which if not addressed, can increase sport injury risk and have a negative effect on athletes’ reactions post-injury.
Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings
Niranjan Chakrabhavi and Varadhan SKM
A task involving an instructed finger movement causes involuntary movements in the noninstructed fingers of the hand, also known as finger interdependence. It is associated with both mechanical and neural mechanisms. The current experiment investigated the effect of finger interdependence due to systematic changes of the wrist posture, close to neutral. Eight right-handed healthy human participants performed submaximal cyclic flexion and extension at the metacarpophalangeal joint at 0° neutral, 30° extension, and 30° flexion wrist postures, respectively. The experiment comprised of an instruction to move one of the 4 fingers—index, middle, ring, and little. Movements of the instructed and noninstructed fingers were recorded. Finger interdependence was quantified using enslavement matrix, individuation index, and stationarity index, and it was compared across wrist postures. The authors found that the finger interdependence does not change with changes in wrist posture. Further analysis showed that individuation and stationarity indices were mostly equivalent across wrist postures, and their effects were much smaller than the average differences present among the fingers. The authors conclude that at wrist postures close to neutral, the finger interdependence is not affected by wrist posture.
Sarah C. Moudy, Neale A. Tillin, Amy R. Sibley and Siobhán Strike
Individuals with unilateral transtibial amputations experience greater work demand and loading on the intact limb compared with the prosthetic limb, placing this limb at a greater risk of knee joint degenerative conditions. It is possible that increased loading on the intact side may occur due to strength deficits and joint absorption mechanics. This study investigated the intact limb mechanics utilized to attenuate load, independent of prosthetic limb contributions and requirements for forward progression, which could provide an indication of deficiencies in the intact limb. Amputee and healthy control participants completed 3 unilateral drop landings from a 30-cm drop height. Joint angles at touchdown; range of motion; coupling angles; peak powers; and negative work of the ankle, knee, and hip were extracted together with isometric quadriceps strength measures. No significant differences were found in the load or movement mechanics (P ≥ .31, g ≤ 0.42), despite deficits in isometric maximum (20%) and explosive (25%) strength (P ≤ .13, g ≥ 0.61) in the intact limb. These results demonstrate that, when the influence from the prosthetic limb and task demand are absent, and despite deficits in strength, the intact limb adopts joint mechanics similar to able-bodied controls to attenuate limb loading.
Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger
The purpose of this study was to determine expert consensus regarding the essential characteristics of adapted physical education practicum experiences for preservice physical educators. Researchers used a 3-round Delphi procedure involving the repeated circulation of an online questionnaire to a panel of content experts (N = 24). During Round 1, panelists generated 70 items in response to an open-ended prompt. Then, panelists rated these recommendations on importance and feasibility in the following rounds. After the third round, 23 items were eliminated for failing to reach consensus. Of the remaining 47 items, 24 were both very important and feasible (both means >6), 21 were very important (mean ≥ 6) and probably feasible (mean ≥ 5), and 2 were feasible (mean ≥ 6) and moderately important (mean ≥ 5). Four major themes were identified through a post hoc qualitative cluster analysis: program context, teaching and learning activities, outcomes/soft skills, and evaluation of instructor performance.
Jana L. Fogaca, Jack C. Watson II and Sam J. Zizzi
A fundamental issue in applied sport psychology is the development of competent professionals who can provide effective and ethical services to clients. The current study uses a qualitative longitudinal design to track the development of five novice sport psychology practitioners in their first year of practice. The research team analyzed and integrated data from surveys, interviews, and journals to understand the participants’ experiences and compare them to previous literature on practitioner development. Participants reported increased confidence and flexibility over time, and reduced their perceived anxiety and dependence on supervision. These changes were similar in nature to what has been reported for counseling trainees, but seemed to happen more quickly. These findings highlight important developmental characteristics of first year sport psychology practitioners, which can help graduate programs to tailor their supervision and training to their students’ needs.
Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte and Britton W. Brewer
Flikikammo is a troubling phenomenon in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic backward moving gymnastics skills as a normal part of a routine. To better understand the effects of flikikammo over time, the confidence, perceived pressure, physical well-being, energy, and stress levels of gymnasts (n = 6) and cheerleaders (n = 4) were assessed weekly over 10 weeks. Half of the participants reported experiencing flikikammo at the start of the study, and half served as age, skill level, and sport-matched controls. Athletes with flikikammo indicated that pressure from coaches and higher energy levels were related to more severe flikikammo. For participants under the age of 18, higher levels of life stress positively correlated with flikikammo, but for those over 18, higher life stress was negatively correlated with flikikammo. These findings highlight the complexity of flikikammo and suggest that complex solutions may be needed to address flikikammo issues.
Laurel W. Sheffield and Lauren A. Stutts
Collegiate athletes are frequently exposed to pain/injury, which has the potential to negatively impact their physical and psychological health. This quasi-experimental study investigated the influence of gender and athletic status on deciding whether pain should be reported to the head coach in a vignette. Participants included 236 undergraduates who read four vignettes describing athletes (two men, two women) who were experiencing pain while playing a sport and made recommendations about whether the athlete should report the pain. Regardless of the gender of the athlete in the vignette, women and non-Division I athletes were more confident that the pain should be reported to the coach than men and athletes. Division I athletes’ recommendations for others to report pain did not align with what they reported practicing themselves. These results suggest that athletes and coaches should receive education about the factors that may lead an athlete to choose not to report pain.
Frank E. DiLiberto and Deborah A. Nawoczenski
Although the midfoot is recognized to have an important role in the successful performance of a single-limb heel rise, healthy heel rise performance remains primarily characterized by ankle function. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of midfoot region power to single-limb heel rise in healthy adults. Participants (N = 12) performed 20 single-limb heel rises. An electromagnetic motion capture system and a force plate were used to record 3-segment foot motion and ground reaction forces. Inverse dynamic calculations were performed to obtain ankle and midfoot region powers. These data were evaluated with descriptive statistics. A correlation was performed to evaluate the contribution of midfoot region power to heel height, as heel height is a clinical measure of heel-rise performance. The midfoot contributed power during single-limb heel rise (peak positive power: 0.5 [0.2] W·kg−1). Furthermore, midfoot peak power accounted for 36% of the variance in heel height (P = .04). As energy generating internal mechanisms, such as muscle activity, are attributed to power generation, midfoot tissue loading and muscle performance should be considered during clinical and modeling applications of the heel-rise task.
Marlowe Pecora, Luc Tremblay and Matthew Heath
Reaches with overlapping stimulus-response spatial relations (propointing) adhere to speed–accuracy relations as defined by Paul Fitts’ index of difficulty equation (IDFitts: in bits of information). This movement principle is attributed to response mediation via the “fast” visuomotor networks of the dorsal visual pathway. It is, however, unclear whether the executive demands of dissociating stimulus-response spatial relations by reaching mirror-symmetrical to a target (antipointing) elicits similar adherence to Fitts’ equation. Here, pro- and antipointing responses were directed to a constant target amplitude with varying target widths to provide IDFitts values of 3.0, 3.5, 4.3, and 6.3 bits. Propointing movement times linearly increased with IDFitts—a result attributed to visually based trajectory corrections. In contrast, antipointing movement times, deceleration times, and endpoint precision did not adhere to Fitts’ equation. These results indicate that antipointing renders a “slow” and offline mode of control mediated by the visuoperceptual networks of the ventral visual pathway.
Kylie McNeill, Natalie Durand-Bush and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre
While coaches are considered at risk of experiencing burnout, there is an absence of intervention studies addressing this syndrome. The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct a self-regulation intervention with five Canadian developmental (n = 2) and elite (n = 3) sport coaches (three men, two women) experiencing moderate to high levels of burnout and examine the perceived impact of this intervention on their self-regulation capacity and experiences of burnout and well-being. The content analysis of the coaches’ outtake interviews and five bi-weekly journals revealed that all five of them learned to self-regulate more effectively by developing various competencies (e.g., strategic planning for their well-being, self-monitoring) and strategies (e.g., task delegation, facilitative self-talk). Four of the coaches also perceived improvements in their symptoms of burnout and well-being. Sport psychology interventions individualized for coaches are a promising means for helping them manage burnout and enhance their overall functioning.