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Kayla J. Nuss, Nicholas A. Hulett, Alden Erickson, Eric Burton, Kyle Carr, Lauren Mooney, Jacob Anderson, Ashley Comstock, Ethan J. Schlemer, Lucas J. Archambault and Kaigang Li

Objective: To validate and compare the accuracy of energy expenditure (EE) and step counts measured by ActiGraph accelerometers (ACT) at dominant and nondominant wrist and hip sites. Methods: Thirty young adults (15 females, age 22.93 ± 3.30 years) wore four ActiGraph wGT3X accelerometers while walking and running on a treadmill for 7 min at seven different speeds (1.7, 2.5, 3.4, 4.2, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 mph). The EE from each ACT was calculated using the Freedson Adult equation, and the “worn on the wrist” option was selected for the wrist data. Indirect calorimetry and manually counted steps were used as criterion measures. Mean absolute percentage error and two one-sided test procedures for equivalence were used for the analyses. Results: All ACTs underestimated the EE with mean absolute percentage errors over 30% for wrist placement and over 20% for hip placement. The wrist-worn ACTs underestimated the step count with mean absolute percentage errors above 30% for both dominant and nondominant placements. The hip-worn ACTs accurately assessed steps for the whole sample and for women and men (p < .001 to .05 for two one-sided tests procedures), but not at speeds slower than 2.0 mph. Conclusion: Neither hip nor wrist placements assess EE accurately. More algorithms and methods to derive EE estimates from wrist-worn ACTs must be developed and validated. For step counts, both dominant and nondominant hip placements, but not wrist placements, lead to accurate results for both men and women.

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Ryan Eckert, Jennifer Huberty, Heidi Kosiorek, Shannon Clark-Sienkiewicz, Linda Larkey and Ruben Mesa

Introduction: The delivery of online interventions in cancer patients/survivors has increased. The measurement of participation in online interventions is important to consider, namely, the challenges of the remote assessment of activity. The purpose of this study was to report the measures used to assess intervention compliance and other physical activity participation in two online yoga studies, the relationship between the multimethod measures used, and the ability of cancer patients to complete these measures. Methods: The methods described are of two online yoga studies (feasibility and pilot). Cancer patients were asked to participate in 60 min/week of online yoga for 12 weeks, complete a weekly yoga log, wear a Fitbit daily for 12 weeks, and complete a weekly physical activity log. Finally, Clicky®, a web analytics software, was used to track online yoga participation. Results: Eighty-four people participated across both studies, with 63/84 participating in online yoga, averaging 57.5 ± 33.2 min/week of self-reported yoga participation compared to 41.4 ± 26.1 min/week of Clicky® yoga participation (Lin concordance = 0.28). All 84 participants averaged 95.5 ± 111.8 min/week of self-reported moderate/vigorous physical activity compared with 98.1 ± 115.9 min/week of Fitbit-determined moderate/vigorous physical activity (Lin concordance = 0.33). Across both studies, 82.9% of the yoga logs were completed, the Fitbit was worn on 75.2% of the days, and 78.7% of the physical activity logs were completed. Conclusions: Weak relationships between self-report and objective measures were demonstrated, but the compliance rates were above 75% for the study measures. Future research is needed, investigating the intricacies of self-report physical activity participation in remote interventions and the validation of a gold standard measurement for online interventions.

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Fahim A. Salim, Fasih Haider, Dees Postma, Robby van Delden, Dennis Reidsma, Saturnino Luz and Bert-Jan van Beijnum

Automatic tagging of video recordings of sports matches and training sessions can be helpful to coaches and players and provide access to structured data at a scale that would be unfeasible if one were to rely on manual tagging. Recognition of different actions forms an essential part of sports video tagging. In this paper, the authors employ machine learning techniques to automatically recognize specific types of volleyball actions (i.e., underhand serve, overhead pass, serve, forearm pass, one hand pass, smash, and block which are manually annotated) during matches and training sessions (uncontrolled, in the wild data) based on motion data captured by inertial measurement unit sensors strapped on the wrists of eight female volleyball players. Analysis of the results suggests that all sensors in the inertial measurement unit (i.e., magnetometer, accelerometer, barometer, and gyroscope) contribute unique information in the classification of volleyball actions types. The authors demonstrate that while the accelerometer feature set provides better results than other sensors, overall (i.e., gyroscope, magnetometer, and barometer) feature fusion of the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope provides the bests results (unweighted average recall = 67.87%, unweighted average precision = 68.68%, and κ = .727), well above the chance level of 14.28%. Interestingly, it is also demonstrated that the dominant hand (unweighted average recall = 61.45%, unweighted average precision = 65.41%, and κ = .652) provides better results than the nondominant (unweighted average recall = 45.56%, unweighted average precision = 55.45, and κ = .553) hand. Apart from machine learning models, this paper also discusses a modular architecture for a system to automatically supplement video recording by detecting events of interests in volleyball matches and training sessions and to provide tailored and interactive multimodal feedback by utilizing an HTML5/JavaScript application. A proof of concept prototype developed based on this architecture is also described.

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Bryson Carrier, Andrew Creer, Lauren R. Williams, Timothy M. Holmes, Brayden D. Jolley, Siri Dahl, Elizabeth Weber and Tyler Standifird

The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the Garmin fēnix® 3 HR fitness tracker. Methods: A total of 34 healthy recreational runners participated in biomechanical or metabolic testing. Biomechanics participants completed three running conditions (flat, incline, and decline) at a self-selected running pace, on an instrumented treadmill while running biomechanics were tracked using a motion capture system. Variables extracted were compared with data collected by the Garmin fēnix 3 HR (worn on the wrist) that was paired with a chest heart rate monitor and a Garmin Foot Pod (worn on the shoe). Metabolic testing involved two separate tests; a graded exercise test to exhaustion utilizing a metabolic cart and treadmill, and a 15-min submaximal outdoor track session while wearing the Garmin. 2 × 3 analysis of variances with post hoc t tests, mean absolute percentage errors, Pearson’s correlation (R), and a t test were used to determine validity. Results: The fēnix kinematics had a mean absolute percentage errors of 9.44%, 0.21%, 26.38%, and 5.77% for stride length, run cadence, vertical oscillation, and ground contact time, respectively. The fēnix overestimated (p < .05) VO2max with a mean absolute percentage error of 8.05% and an R value of .917. Conclusion: The Garmin fēnix 3 HR appears to produce a valid measure of run cadence and ground contact time during running, while it overestimated vertical oscillation in every condition (p < .05) and should be used with caution when determining stride length. The fēnix appears to produce a valid VO2max estimate and may be used when more accurate methods are not available.

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Yann Abdourazakou, Xuefei (Nancy) Deng and Gashaw Abeza

This study sought to examine season ticket holders’ usage of social networking sites during live sport consumption. Informed by uses and gratifications theory, the study examined three types of social media use by fans—Twitter/Facebook posting, Instagram/Snapchat posting, and mobile app use—during a live game. Survey data of 400 season ticket holders of a professional National Basketball Association team were analyzed. Regression results showed that age was a significant predictor of the fans’ in-game social media use in terms of Instagram/Snapchat posting and mobile app use, whereas gender was a significant predictor of their Twitter/Facebook posting behavior. Moreover, the study showed a mixed result for the predicted moderating effect of the season ticket holders’ tenure on the predicted relationships between the two personal characteristics (age and gender) and the three types of social media use. Theoretical and practical implications of the study for sports marketing management are discussed.

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Carolina Lundqvist

This case report described the use of behavioral activation when a former Olympic athlete developed depression after career termination. Four sessions were conducted, one session each week, followed by a boost session 1 month later. In Session 1, the former Olympic athlete displayed mild-to-moderate depression with anxiety and a low quality of life (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale = 21; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale = 17; Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Scale = 44). By Session 3, the Olympic athlete no longer met the diagnostic criteria for clinical depression or anxiety (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale = 2; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale = 7) and the quality of life was improved (Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Scale = 60). Follow-up assessments 1-year posttreatment confirmed that the former Olympic athlete continued to improve (Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale = 0; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Scale = 0; Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Scale = 96). This case report discusses the benefits of proactive support to elite athletes and the use of established clinical psychological treatments, for example, behavioral activation, when athletes develop health-related conditions.

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Michael McDougall, Noora Ronkainen, David Richardson, Martin Littlewood and Mark Nesti

In sport psychology, organizational culture is usually depicted as shared, consistent, and clear—the glue that holds people together so they can achieve success. There is, however, growing discontent in sport psychology with this idea of culture and extensive critiques in other academic domains that suggest this perspective is limited. Accordingly, the authors draw on narrative interviews with participants (n = 7) from different areas of sport and use Martin and Meyerson’s three perspective (integration, differentiation, and fragmentation) approach to culture alongside thematic analysis to reconstruct three “ideal cases” that exemplify each perspective. The findings emphasize a different pattern of meaning in each actors’ narrative and suggest the need to develop a broader, more inclusive concept of culture, so as not to minimize or dismiss cultural content that is not obviously shared, clear, or created by leadership; a course of action that can enhance both research and practice in the area.

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Melinda A. Solmon, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Nancy I. Williams, Thomas J. Templin, Sarah L. Price and Alison Weimer

This paper evolved from a panel discussion presented at the 2020 American Kinesiology Association Leadership Workshop focused on promoting physical activity through Kinesiology teaching and outreach. The authors consider the role of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) in promoting physical activity by examining the historical role that PETE has played in what are now Departments of Kinesiology, the status of PETE programs today, and how the future of PETE programs can impact the future of the discipline of Kinesiology. The challenges and barriers that PETE programs face are presented. The role of PETE programs in research institutions is examined, and case studies are presented that demonstrate the complexities the academic units face regarding allocating resources to PETE programs. The consequences of program termination are considered, and the authors then make a case that PETE programs are important to the broader discipline of Kinesiology. The authors conclude by encouraging innovative solutions that can be developed to help PETE programs thrive.