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Patti Millar and Julie Stevens

Past research has demonstrated that human resource training often results in improved individual and organizational performances. Yet, the focus has been on whether or not training has an impact on performance, rather than the nature of that impact. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of training-related outcomes in the context of one training program within the Canadian national sport sector. Interviews were conducted with key representatives from 12 Canadian national sport organizations. Findings showed the manifestations of performance change that occur as a result of training, revealing a new way of thinking at the individual level, a new way of doing within group and organizational processes, and a new way of being across organizations. Three theoretical perspectives—interpretation, learning, and institutional—are used to frame the discussion of the findings. Implications for practice and future research are presented.

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Marcin Straczkiewicz, Nancy W. Glynn, Vadim Zipunnikov and Jaroslaw Harezlak

Background: The increasing popularity of wrist-worn accelerometers introduces novel challenges to the research on physical activity and sedentary behavior. Estimation of body posture is one such challenge. Methods: The authors proposed an approach called SedUp to differentiate between sedentary (sitting/lying) and standing postures. SedUp is based on the logistic regression classifier, using the wrist elevation and the motion variability extracted from raw accelerometry data collected on the axis parallel to the forearm. The authors developed and tested our method on data from N = 45 community-dwelling older adults. All subjects wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers on the left and right wrist, and activPAL was placed on the thigh in the free-living environment for 7 days. ActivPAL provided ground truth about body posture. The authors reported SedUp’s classification accuracy for each wrist separately. Results: Using the data from the left wrist, SedUp estimated the standing posture with median true positive rate = 0.83 and median true negative rate = 0.91. Using the data from the right wrist, SedUp estimated the standing posture with median true positive rate = 0.86 and median true negative rate = 0.93. Conclusions: SedUp provides accurate classification of body posture using wrist-worn accelerometers. The separate validation for each wrist allows for the application of SedUp in a wide spectrum of free-living studies.

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Justin B. Hollander, Ann Sussman, Peter Lowitt, Neil Angus and Minyu Situ

Background: Understanding more about the unseen side of our responses to visual stimuli offers a powerful new tool for transportation planning. Traditional transportation planning tends to focus on the mobility of vehicles rather than on opportunities to encourage sustainable transport modes, like walking. Methods: Using eye-tracking emulation software, this study measured the unconscious visual responses people have to designs and layouts in new built environments, focusing on what makes streets most walkable. Results: The study found key differences between the way the brain takes in conventional automobile-oriented residential developments versus new urbanist layouts, with the former lacking key fixation points. Conclusion: The study’s discoveries significantly explain why new urbanist layouts promote walking effortlessly and conventional automobile-oriented residential developments cannot.

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Gashaw Abeza, Jessica R. Braunstein-Minkove, Benoit Séguin, Norm O’Reilly, Ari Kim and Yann Abdourazakou

This study explored the practices and strategies of ambush marketing via social media (SM) during the 2014 Sochi, 2016 Rio, and 2018 PyeongChang Olympic Games. An observational netnography method was adopted to investigate direct industry competitors’ (of the Olympic sponsors) use of SM for the purpose of ambush marketing during the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games. Data were gathered from the official Twitter accounts of 15 direct industry competitors over the three most recent Games. Despite a series of SM guidelines released by IOC for the 2014, 2016, and 2018 Games, the findings showed that the practice of ambush marketing via SM was evident during each of the Games. Direct industry competitors were found employing four specific ambush strategies, namely, associative, values, coattail, and property infringement. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as an impetus for future research, are suggested.

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Geeta Sharma, Tom Stewart and Scott Duncan

Background: Curriculum-integrated dance programs are a promising but relatively under-researched strategy for increasing children’s physical activity (PA). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a curriculum-integrated dance program on children’s PA. Methods: A total of 134 primary children aged 7–9 years from 4 New Zealand schools were assigned to either a dance group (n = 78) or a control group (n = 56). The dance group participated in a 6-week curriculum-integrated dance program during school time. Although the dance program focused on curricular learning, fitness and coordination were embedded in the dance sessions. Intensity of PA varied according to the focus of each dance session. PA was measured at baseline and postintervention using a waist-mounted ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer for 8 consecutive days. Results: There were no significant intervention effects on PA levels between the dance and control groups postintervention. Conclusion: Dance-embedded learning did not increase overall levels of PA in this study. Future studies may consider assessing longer term effects of a dance-based intervention, or programs that place more focus on PA promotion.

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Ángel Luis Clemente Remón, Víctor Jiménez Díaz-Benito, José Emilio Jiménez Beatty and José Antonio Santacruz Lozano

The study aimed to ascertain the levels of older European people’s physical activity according to sociodemographic variables. The sample size was 7,893 citizens aged 65 and over from the European Union. The participants were classified as physically inactive, adequately active, or highly active, according to the World Health Organization. The total metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week were also calculated. In the results, 55.5% of older people were adequately active, and 43.8% were highly active, especially in the North and West. The average metabolic equivalents of task minutes per week was 1,313 metabolic equivalents of task minutes, with walking as the main activity, followed by moderate physical activity and vigorous activity. Male older people of a lower age from the North and West, with a higher level of education and less difficulty in paying bills, were more likely to be physically active. As a conclusion, only slightly more than half the population were adequately active. These sociodemographic inequalities show the necessity of implementing specific measures.

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Jarle Stålesen, Thomas Westergren, Bjørge Herman Hansen and Sveinung Berntsen

Background: Smartphones with embedded sensors, such as accelerometers, are promising tools for assessing physical activity (PA), provided they can produce valid and reliable indices. The authors aimed to summarize studies on the PA measurement properties of smartphone accelerometers compared with research-grade PA monitors or other objective methods across the intensity spectrum, and to report the effects of different smartphone placements on the accuracy of measurements. Methods: A systematic search was conducted on July 1, 2019 in PubMed, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and Scopus, followed by screening. Results: Nine studies were included, showing moderate-to-good agreements between PA indices derived from smartphone accelerometers and research-grade PA monitors and/or indirect calorimetry. Three studies investigated measurement properties across smartphone placements, with small differences. Large heterogeneity across studies hampered further comparisons. Conclusions: Despite moderate-to-good agreements between PA indices derived from smartphone accelerometers and research-grade PA monitors and/or indirect calorimetry, the validity of smartphone monitoring is currently challenged by poor intermonitor reliability between smartphone brands/versions, heterogeneity in protocols used for validation, the sparsity of studies, and the need to address the effects of smartphone placement.

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Alfonso Gutiérrez-Santiago, Iván Prieto-Lage, Arturo Martín and Carlos Ayán

Background: To provide information regarding injury incidence, injury pattern, and associated injury risk factors in elite Paralympic judokas. Methods: Participants in this observational research were elite judokas taking part in the IBSA 2018 World Judo Championship. The entire championship was videotaped, and all injuries were prospectively documented using an all-complaints definition. Results: The tournament featured 267 judokas, (B1 = 58; B2 = 105; B3 = 104). The injury proportion was estimated at 18.9 injuries/100 fighters (B1 = 13.8; B2 = 22.3; B3 = 18.5). A total of 745 athletic exposures were registered. The overall injury rate was 68.5 (95% CI, 52.5–89.2); 62.5 (95% CI, 32–122.3); 79.6 (95% CI, 53.8–17.8); and 61.2 (95% CI, 40–93.5) for the total sample, B1, B2, and B3 judokas, respectively. When only injuries resulting in medical attention were analyzed, the overall injury rate was calculated to be 22.8 (95% CI, 14.3–36.5), and the injury proportion was estimated at 6.3 injuries/100 fighters. No significant differences were found for sex, weight, and visual class regarding injury proportion and injury rates. Conclusion: Paralympic judokas show a high injury rate. However, when only injuries that needed medical attention were taken into account, the proportion of athletes injured was low. The degree of visual impairment was not considered as an injury risk factor.

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Danielle R. Madden, Chun Nok Lam, Brian Redline, Eldin Dzubur, Harmony Rhoades, Stephen S. Intille, Genevieve F. Dunton and Benjamin Henwood

Adults with serious mental illness engage in limited physical activity, which contributes to significant health disparities. This study explored the use of both ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) and activity trackers in adults with serious mental illness to examine the bidirectional relationship between activity and affect with multilevel modeling. Affective states were assessed up to seven times per day using EMA across 4 days. The participants (n = 20) were equipped with a waist-worn accelerometer to measure moderate to vigorous physical activity. The participants had a mean EMA compliance rate of 88.3%, and over 90% of completed EMAs were matched with 30-min windows of accelerometer wear. The participants who reported more positive affect than others had a higher probability of engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity than one’s usual was associated with more negative affect. This study begins to address the effect of momentary mood on physical activity in a population of adults that is typically difficult to reach.

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Joachim Hüffmeier, Joyce Elena Schleu and Christoph Nohe

Prior research showed that swimmers swim faster in relay than in individual competitions if they start at later relay positions. This finding is typically explained via the swimmers’ relay position and their associated perception that their individual performance is indispensable for their teams’ performance. Using multilevel modeling, the authors disentangled this situational explanation from alternative accounts focusing on individual differences between swimmers. Two studies empirically supported the situational explanation: When using a within-person approach and, thus, controlling for between-person variance (i.e., individual differences between swimmers), the swimmers’ relay position remained a significant predictor of the increases in effort spent in relays. This finding held when controlling for the on-average higher instrumentality in the relay versus the individual competitions. Thus, the often observed effort gains in swimming relays probably are due to the swimmers’ relay position as a situational explanation and stem from the motivating impact of teamwork versus individual work.