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Jonathon J.S. Weakley, Dale B. Read, Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Ben Jones, Cloe Cummins and John A. Sampson

Purpose: To investigate whether providing global positioning system feedback to players between bouts of small-sided games (SSGs) can alter locomotor, physiological, and perceptual responses. Methods: Using a reverse counterbalanced design, 20 male university rugby players received either feedback or no feedback during “off-side” touch rugby SSGs. Eight 5v5, 6 × 4-minute SSGs were played over 4 d. Teams were assigned to a feedback or no-feedback condition (control) each day, with feedback provided during the 2-min between-bouts rest interval. Locomotor, heart rate, and differential rating of perceived exertion of breathlessness and leg-muscle exertion were measured and analyzed using a linear mixed model. Outcomes were reported using effect sizes (ES) and 90% confidence intervals (CI), and then interpreted via magnitude-based decisions. Results: Very likely trivial to unclear differences at all time points were observed in heart rate and differential rating of perceived exertion measures. Possibly to very likely trivial effects were observed between conditions, including total distance (ES = 0.15; 90 CI, −0.03 to 0.34), high-speed distance (ES = −0.07; 90 CI, −0.27 to 0.13), and maximal sprint speed (ES = 0.11; 90% CI, −0.11 to 0.34). All within-bout comparisons showed very likely to unclear differences, apart from possible increases in low-speed distance in bout 2 (ES = 0.23; 90% CI, 0.01 to 0.46) and maximal sprint speed in bout 4 (ES = 0.21; 90% CI, −0.04 to 0.45). Conclusions: In this study, verbal feedback did not alter locomotor, physiological, or perceptual responses in rugby players during SSGs. This may be due to contextual factors (eg, opposition) or the type (ie, distance) or low frequency of feedback provided.

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Juan A. Escobar Álvarez, Juan P. Fuentes García, Filipe A. Da Conceição and Pedro Jiménez-Reyes

Purpose: Ballet dancers are required to achieve performance feats such as exciting and dramatic elevations. Dancers with a greater jump height can perform a wider range of skills during their flight time and implement more specific technical skills related to the aesthetic components of a dance choreography. New findings suggest the relationship between force and velocity mechanical capabilities (F-V profile) as an important variable for jumping performance. A new field method based on several series of loaded vertical jumps provides information on the theoretical maximal force, theoretical maximal velocity, theoretical maximal power, and the imbalance between force and velocity (F-V IMB). The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of 9 wk of individualized F-V profile-based training during countermovement jumps (CMJs) in female ballet dancers. Methods: CMJ and mechanical outputs of 46 dancers (age = 18.9 [1.1] y, body mass = 54.8 [6.1] kg, height = 163.7 [8.4] cm) were estimated in a pre–post intervention. The control group (10 participants) continued with the standardized training regimen (no resistance training), whereas the experimental group (36 participants) performed 2 sessions over 9 wk of a training plan based on their F-V profile. Results: The experimental group presented significant differences with large effect sizes in CMJ height (29.3 [3.2] cm vs 33.5 [3.72] cm), theoretical maximal force (24.1 [2.2] N/kg vs 29.9 [2.8] N/kg), and theoretical maximal velocity (4 [0.6] m/s vs 3.2 [0.5] m/s). Significant differences with a very large effect size were found in F-V IMB (43.8% [15.3%] vs 24.9% [8.7%]). Conclusion: A training program addressing F-V IMB is an effective way to improve CMJ height in female ballet dancers.

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Chevelle M.A. Davis, Tetine L. Sentell, Juliana Fernandes de Souza Barbosa, Alban Ylli, Carmen-Lucia Curcio and Catherine M. Pirkle

Physical activity (PA) among older adults is understudied in middle-income countries. The authors examined the associations of factors across levels of the social ecological model (individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community) with older adults meeting guidelines of 150 min of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA per week through walking in three middle-income countries: Albania (n = 387), Colombia (n = 404), and Brazil (n = 402). Using 2012 International Mobility in Aging Study data, multivariate logistic regression models identified the following significant associations with meeting PA guidelines through walking (a) individual level: depression (odds ratio [OR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval, CI [0.45, 0.86]), being female (OR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.56, 0.998]), and high relative education (OR = 1.79, 95% CI [1.33, 2.41]) and (b) interpersonal level: high life partner (OR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.04, 1.83]) and friend social ties (OR = 1.39, 95% CI [1.05, 1.83]). While individual and interpersonal variables were associated with meeting PA guidelines, community-level social and environmental variables were not.

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Edward A. Gray, Thomas A. Green, James A. Betts and Javier T. Gonzalez

During short-term recovery, postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion can accelerate total glycogen repletion and augment recovery of running capacity. It is unknown if this advantage translates to cycling, or to a longer (e.g., overnight) recovery. Using two experiments, the present research investigated if postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion augments exercise capacity following 4-hr (short experiment; n = 8) and 15-hr (overnight experiment; n = 8) recoveries from exhaustive exercise in trained cyclists, compared with isocaloric glucose alone. In each experiment, a glycogen depleting exercise protocol was followed by a 4-hr recovery, with ingestion of 1.5 or 1.2 g·kg−1·hr−1 carbohydrate in the short experiment (double blind) and the overnight experiment (single blind), respectively. Treatments were provided in a randomized order using a crossover design. Four or fifteen hours after the glycogen depletion protocol, participants cycled to exhaustion at 70% Wmax or 65% Wmax in the short experiment and the overnight experiment, respectively. In both experiments there was no difference in substrate oxidation or blood glucose and lactate concentrations between treatments during the exercise capacity test (trial effect, p > .05). Nevertheless, cycling capacity was greater in glucose + fructose versus glucose only in the short experiment (28.0 ± 8.4 vs. 22.8 ± 7.3 min, d = 0.65, p = .039) and the overnight experiment (35.9 ± 10.7 vs. 30.6 ± 9.2 min, d = 0.53, p = .026). This is the first study to demonstrate that postexercise glucose–fructose coingestion enhances cycling capacity following short-term (4 hr) and overnight (15 hr) recovery durations. Therefore, if multistage endurance athletes are ingesting glucose for rapid postexercise recovery then fructose containing carbohydrates may be advisable.

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Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner

Older adults process and remember positive information relatively better than negative information, compared with younger adults; this is known as the positivity effect. This study examined whether older adults compared with younger adults also respond differently to positively and negatively framed questionnaire items. Participants (N = 275; age = 18–81 years) were randomly assigned to a positively or negatively framed version of a self-efficacy for physical activity questionnaire. Self-efficacy, physical activity intentions, and planned physical activity in the following week were regressed on experimental group and age, controlling for baseline physical activity and covariates. A significant Age × Frame interaction showed that item framing made a difference in planned physical activity for the oldest age group (+350 min compared with the youngest group). This study provides initial support for the positivity effect in item framing on physical activity plans, but not on intentions or self-efficacy. Item framing should be taken into consideration for accurate measurement, but could also be a simple intervention approach.

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Jeffrey Martin

The overarching purpose of the current article was to examine the status of sport psychology as a profession in 4 ways. First, the author characterizes the profession of sport psychology as an illusion because there is so little demand for sport psychology services and because there are so few full-time practicing sport psychologists. Second, paradoxically, it appears that many people assume that applied sport psychology is a healthy and viable profession, so the author comments on why this is the case. Sidestepping the lack of jobs does a disservice to graduate students who believe they can easily become practicing sport psychologists. Third, it is clear that few athletes or teams want to pay for sport psychology services, so some reasons why this is the case are presented. Fourth, the author speculates about the future of the sport psychology profession, followed by some recommendations that would rectify his claim that the field’s relative silence on this issue does a disservice to students.

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and quantity and injuries in elite soccer players and to compare sleep–wake variables and injury characteristics. Methods: The current investigation was a prospective cohort study of 23 elite male soccer players competing for 2 teams over 6 mo in the highest-level Brazilian competition. The players’ sleep behavior was monitored for 10 d in the preseason using self-reporting sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors to determine sleep duration and quality. Furthermore, injuries were recorded by the respective club’s medical teams into a specific database. Details of injuries recorded included the type, location, and severity of each injury. The results were expressed as descriptive statistics, and the significance level was set at 5%. The Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare the sleep variables between groups. Spearman correlation coefficient and linear-regression analysis were used. Results: The results indicated a moderate negative correlation between sleep efficiency and particular injury characteristics, including absence time, injury severity, and amount of injuries. The linear-regression analysis indicated that 44% of the total variance in the number of injuries can be explained by sleep efficiency, 24% of the total variance in the absence time after injury (days) can be explained by sleep efficiency, and 47% of the total variance in the injury severity can be explained by sleep efficiency. Conclusions: Soccer players who exhibit lower sleep quality or nonrestorative sleep show associations with increased number and severity of musculoskeletal injuries.

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville

Every day, young learners are confronted with challenges. The degree to which they persist in overcoming those challenges, and the different ways they persist, provides critical insights into the various cognitive, motoric, and affective processes that drive behavior. Here, we present a systematic overview of the methodologies that have been traditionally used to study persistence, and offer suggestions for new approaches to the study of persistence that will make strides in moving the field forward. We argue that automated measures of force and motion, which have long been used in the study of infants’ motoric behavior, can provide a means to unravel the psychological processes that guide infants’ trying behavior. To illustrate this, we present a case study that highlights the novel lessons to be learned by the use of automated measures of force and motion regarding infants’ persistence, along with an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of this approach, as well as detailed instructions for application. In sum, we conclude that these measures, when used in conjunction with more traditional approaches, will provide creative new insights into the nature and development of early persistence.

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Quinn Malone, Steven Passmore and Michele Maiers

Different techniques used to analyze and reduce accelerometer data may impact its interpretation. To determine which variables were impacted by changing analysis parameters, the authors performed a secondary analysis of data gained from a clinical trial conducted on older adults (aged ≥65 years; M = 71.1 and SD = 5.3; n = 100) with neck and back disabilities and compared the effects of two different cut- point sets (Matthews and Freedson sets) commonly used to analyze older adult accelerometry data. The Matthews set was found to assign significantly greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day than the Freedson set in all comparisons. This suggests that, if moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per unit time is a primary outcome measure, the choice of which analysis method is used should be carefully considered. Further results from analyses of dependent variables, time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity bouts of >10 min/day, mean bout length, and number of bouts per day are discussed.

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

Context: One of the main reasons why athletes with a high physical condition suffer from low back pain disease is because they often participate in sports that involve disc compression movements during flexion, lifting loads, or torsion movement. Objectives: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of the postural treatment of the Mézières method on elite rhythmic gymnastics athletes with low back pain. Design: Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Setting: The sports hall of “Puente Tocinos,” Murcia, Spain. Participants: Ninety gymnastics athletes were randomized into 2 parallel groups (intervention: n = 39; control: n = 51), of whom 98.9% were women (women = 89; man = 1). Intervention: The Mézières method postural therapy was implemented. It lasted about 60 minutes in repeated sessions of 2 to 3 meetings per week by counting in overall 60 sessions during a 24-week period. Main Outcome Measures: Visual analog scale of pain, sit and reach flexibility test, Runtastic (pedometer performance android application), Roland–Morris Questionnaire for the physical disability, and the Health Status Questionnaire were used. Results: The univariate analysis of variance and independent sample t test revealed a significant improvement in the intervention group concerning the visual analog scale pain assessment scale (P < .05, ηp2=.625), and, also, the between-groups effect size was high during the 24 sessions of treatment (d > 0.8) compared with the control one. The same situation persists even for Roland–Morris Questionnaire (P < .05, ηp2=.802), physical score (P < .05, ηp2=.613), mental score (P < .05, ηp2=.736), sit and reach flexibility test (P < .05, ηp2=.666), and Runtastic performance (P < .05, ηp2=.790), where the between-groups effect size was high during the 24 sessions of treatment (d > 0.8). Conclusion: The Mézières method treatment performed on athletes with low back pain has caused positive effects on all the outcomes analyzed compared with the ones of control group.