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Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia and Nuria Garatachea

To objectively assess physical activity levels and sedentary behavior in a cohort of Spanish centenarians and their nonagenarian peers. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were objectively measured by an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer in centenarians (n = 18; 83% women; 100.8 ± 0.8 [100–103] years) and nonagenarians (n = 11; 91% women; 93.3 ± 2.5 [90–98] years). Centenarians showed less counts per minute (17.6 ± 7.1 vs. 46.1 ± 23.7, p = .003, d = 1.851) and steps per day (455 ± 237 vs. 1,249 ± 776, p = .007, d = 1.587) than nonagenarians. The daily number of sedentary breaks was also lower in the former (5.0 ± 1.5 vs. 6.7 ± 2.0, p = .019, d = 0.971). When observing time distribution, the most active day period in both groups was the morning, with a peak between 10:00 and 11:59. This data suggest that the decline in physical activity levels continues to worsen until the end of the human lifespan.

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

The aim of this project was to (a) evaluate the potential of the 2-min walk test to detect declines in gait velocity under dual-task conditions and (b) compare gait velocity overground and on a self-paced treadmill in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In total, 23 individuals with PD completed the 2-min walk test under single- and dual-task (serial 7s) conditions overground and on a self-paced treadmill. There was a significant decrease in gait velocity from single- to dual-task conditions overground (1.32 ± 0.22 to 1.10 ± 0.25 m/s; p < .001) and on the self-paced treadmill (1.24 ± 0.21 to 1.05 ± 0.25 m/s; p < .001). Overground and treadmill velocities were not statistically different from each other; however, differences approached or exceeded the minimal clinical important difference. The 2-min walk test coupled with a cognitive task provides an effective model of identifying dual-task declines in individuals with PD. Further studies comparing overground and self-paced treadmill velocity is warranted in PD.

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Mark Ward, Sarah Gibney, David O’Callaghan and Sinead Shannon

Despite the benefits, one in three older adults in Ireland has low activity levels. This study examined associations between the local social and built environment and physical activity of older adults to identify age-friendly factors that support physical activity among the aging population. Data were from the population-representative Healthy and Positive Ageing Initiative Age-Friendly City and Counties Survey (N = 10,540). Physical activity was measured using a short-form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression models were adjusted for known health and sociodemographic correlates of physical activity. Results are reported as unstandardized beta coefficients (β) with standard errors. Loneliness, community participation, and difficulty in accessing green spaces partially explained the differences in the number of minutes that respondents were physically active. Combined with individual-level behavior change interventions, improvements to the local environment and promoting social connectedness may also be useful in promoting physical activity among older adults.

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Deise J.A. Faleiro, Enaiane C. Menezes, Eduardo Capeletto, Felipe Fank, Rafaela M. Porto and Giovana Z. Mazo

Objective: To analyze the scientific evidence on the association of physical activity with urinary incontinence in older women. Design: Searches were performed in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and ScienceDirect. Observational studies were included. The following search terms were used: urinary incontinence, older adult, and physical activity. Methodological quality was assessed using the checklist proposed by Downs and Black. Results: Ten articles were included. Sedentary lifestyle and <150 min/week of physical activity are at risk of developing urinary incontinence. Walking (at least 30 min) and physical activities (600–1,500 and 600 METs/min per week) prevent urinary incontinence. Seven of the 10 studies indicated a good level of methodological quality. Conclusions: Sedentary lifestyle is at risk of urinary incontinence, and walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities are associated with prevention of urinary incontinence.

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Ka Man Leung and Pak-Kwong Chung

This study examined the associations between physical environment, social environment, and walking for transportation and recreation among older adults in Hong Kong. Cross-sectional data from 450 older adults (79 years or younger [71.9%], female [79.7%]) from 18 districts in Hong Kong were used. The participants’ perceptions of their physical and social environments were collected, and their walking behaviors were self-reported. The results revealed that positive physical environment facilitators and social environments were associated with increased total walking. Only positive physical environment facilitators were associated with increased walking for transportation, and physical and social environments had no notable effect on walking for recreation. These findings suggest that policy makers and walking intervention designers should develop strategies to enhance physical and social environments to promote total walking and walking for transportation.

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Karl Spiteri, David Broom, Amira Hassan Bekhet, John Xerri de Caro, Bob Laventure and Kate Grafton

Identifying the difference in the barriers and motivators between middle-aged and older adults could contribute toward the development of age-specific health promotion interventions. The aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on the barriers and motivators for physical activity in middle-aged (50–64 years) and older (65–70 years) adults. This review examined qualitative and quantitative studies using the theoretical domain framework as the guiding theory. The search generated 9,400 results from seven databases, and 55 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. The results indicate that the barriers are comparable across the two age groups, with environmental factors and resources being the most commonly identified barriers. In older adults, social influences, reinforcement, and assistance in managing change were the most identified motivators. In middle-aged adults, goal-setting, the belief that an activity will be beneficial, and social influences were identified as the most important motivators. These findings can be used by professionals to encourage engagement with and adherence to physical activity.

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Julia C. Orri, Elizabeth M. Hughes, Deepa G. Mistry and Antone Scala

The authors compared the linear and nonlinear heart rate variability dynamics from rest through maximal exercise in postmenopausal women who trained at either moderate or high intensities. The outcome variables included the RR triangular index, TINN, SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, DFA α1, DFA α2, and α1/α2. Maximal exercise reduced SD1, SD2, DFA α1, DFA α2, α1/α2, RRTri, and TINN in both groups and increased SD1/SD2 (p < .05). Two minutes of active recovery produced significant increases in SD1, SD2, DFA α1, and TINN, compared with exercise in both groups (p < .0001). There was also a significant main effect between groups for RRTri during exercise recovery, with the moderate group achieving higher levels (p < .04). The authors have shown that both moderate and vigorous exercise training can lead to a healthy response to maximal exercise and recovery, with the moderate group having a slightly improved recovery in the triangular index.

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Werner F. Helsen, Nikola Medic, Janet L. Starkes and Andrew M. Williams

Inequalities in relative age distribution have previously been demonstrated to influence participation and performance achievements in Masters athletes. The purpose of the present study was to examine the participation- and performance-related constituent year effect among Masters athletes (N = 2,474) from the European Masters Track and Field Championships across subdisciplines and age. The results indicated that a participation-related constituent year effect was observed. The likelihood of participation was significantly higher for athletes in their first year of any 5-year age category (χ2 = 149.8, p < .001) and decreased significantly when they were in the fourth or fifth year. The results also indicated a performance-related constituent year effect. Masters athletes in their first year won significantly more medals than expected based on observed participation rate (χ2 = 23.39, p < .001). We compare our results with the existing literature and discuss potential mechanisms for this constituent year effect.

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Yi-Ching Chen, I-Chen Lin, Yen-Ting Lin, Wei-Min Huang, Chien-Chun Huang and Ing-Shiou Hwang

This study contrasted the stochastic force component between young and older adults, who performed pursuit tracking/compensatory tracking by exerting in-phase/antiphase forces to match a sinusoidal target. Tracking force was decomposed into the force component containing the target frequency and the nontarget force fluctuations (stochastic component). Older adults with inferior task performance had higher complexity (entropy across time; p = .005) in total force. For older adults, task errors were negatively correlated with force fluctuation complexity (pursuit tracking: r = −.527 to −.551; compensatory tracking: r = −.626 to −.750). Notwithstanding an age-related increase in total force complexity (p = .004), older adults exhibited lower complexity of the stochastic force component than young adults did (low frequency: p = .017; high frequency: p = .035). Those older adults with a higher complexity of stochastic force had better task performance due to the underlying use of a richer gradation strategy to compensate for impaired oscillatory control.

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Darryn S. Willoughby, Kaitlan N. Beretich, Marcus Chen and LesLee K. Funderburk

Elevated circulating C-terminal agrin fragment (CAF) is a marker of neuromuscular junction degradation and sarcopenia. This study sought to determine if resistance training (RT) impacted the serum levels of CAF in perimenopausal (PERI-M) and postmenopausal (POST-M) women. A total of 35 women, either PERI-M or POST-M, participated in 10 weeks of RT. Body composition, muscle strength, and serum estradiol and CAF were determined before and after the RT. The data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (p ≤ .05). Upper body and lower body strength was significantly increased, by 81% and 73% and 86% and 79% for the PERI-M and POST-M participants, respectively; however, there were no significant changes in body composition. Estradiol was significantly less for the POST-M participants at pretraining compared with the PERI-M participants. CAF moderately increased by 22% for the PERI-M participants in response to RT, whereas it significantly decreased by 49% for the POST-M participants. Ten weeks of RT reduced the circulating CAF in the POST-M women and might play a role in attenuating degenerative neuromuscular junction changes.