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Yang Liu, Senlin Chen and Xiangli Gu

Purpose: The study purpose was to examine performance differences in physical education among learners from two middle schools from two different states. Methods: Performance in physical education was represented by attitude toward physical education, knowledge of physical activity and fitness, and active living behaviors (i.e., physical activity and sedentary behavior). The sixth, seventh, and eighth graders of a midwestern state school (n = 397) and a deep southern state school (n = 350) completed the surveys (N = 747). Results: The authors observed statistically significant school differences in physical activity and fitness knowledge and physical activity behavior (favoring the deep southern state school), and in attitude and sedentary behavior (favoring the midwestern state school). The authors also found stronger associations between attitude and physical activity (but weaker associations between attitude and sedentary behavior) among the deep southern state school students than the midwestern state school students. Conclusion: These observed performance differences and their pedagogical ramifications are discussed in relation to sociodemographic and environmental factors.

Open access

Kristin Suorsa, Anna Pulakka, Tuija Leskinen, Jaana Pentti, Andreas Holtermann, Olli J. Heinonen, Juha Sunikka, Jussi Vahtera and Sari Stenholm

Background: The accuracy of wrist-worn accelerometers in identifying sedentary time has been scarcely studied in free-living conditions. The aim of this study was to compare daily sedentary time estimates between a thigh-worn accelerometer, which measured sitting and lying postures, and a wrist-worn accelerometer, which measured low levels of movement. Methods: The study population consisted of 259 participants (M age = 62.8 years, SD = 0.9) from the Finnish Retirement and Aging Study (FIREA). Participants wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer on their mid-thigh and an Actigraph wActiSleep-BT accelerometer on their non-dominant wrist simultaneously for a minimum of 4 days in free-living conditions. Two definitions to estimate daily sedentary time were used for data from the wrist-worn accelerometer: 1) the count cutpoint, ≤1853 counts per minute; and 2) the Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO) cutpoint, <30 mg. Results: Compared to the thigh-worn accelerometer, daily sedentary time estimate was 63 min (95% confidence interval [CI] = −53 to −73) lower by the count cutpoint and 50 min (95% CI = 34 to 67) lower by the ENMO cutpoint. The limits of agreement in daily sedentary time estimates between the thigh- and cutpoint methods for wrist-worn accelerometers were wide (the count cutpoint: −117 to 243, the ENMO cutpoint: −212 to 313 min). Conclusions: Currently established cutpoint-based methods to estimate sedentary time from wrist-worn accelerometers result in underestimation of daily sedentary time compared to posture-based estimates of thigh-worn accelerometers. Thus, sedentary time estimates obtained from wrist-worn accelerometers using currently available cutpoint-based methods should be interpreted with caution and future work is needed to improve their accuracy.

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Anderson Nascimento Guimarães, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Juliana Bayeux Dascal and Victor Hugo Alves Okazaki

To test Bernstein’s degrees of freedom (DF) hypothesis, the authors analyzed the effect of practice on the DF control and interjoint coordination of a Taekwondo kick. Thirteen inexperienced and 11 expert Taekwondo practitioners were evaluated. Contrary to Bernstein’s hypothesis, the inexperienced group froze the DF at the end of learning, reducing the joint range of motion of the knee. Moderate and strong cross-correlations between joints did not change, demonstrating that the interjoint coordination was maintained. The inexperienced group’s movement pattern was similar to that of the group of experts, from the beginning of the learning process. Thus, even after years of practice, experts continue to explore the strategy of freezing DF. The DF freeing/freezing sequence strategy was explored during the learning process, suggesting that DF-freezing/freeing strategies are task dependent.

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Mohsen Shafizadeh, Jane Manson, Sally Fowler-Davis, Khalid Ali, Anna C. Lowe, Judy Stevenson, Shahab Parvinpour and Keith Davids

The incidence of falling, due to aging, is related to both personal and environmental factors. There is a clear need to understand the nature of the major risk factors and design features of a safe and navigable living environment for potential fallers. The aim of this scoping review was to identify studies that have examined the effectiveness of environments, which promote physical activity and have an impact on falls prevention. Selected studies were identified and categorized into four main topics: built environment, environment modifications, enriched environments, and task constraints. The results of this analysis showed that there are a limited number of studies aiming to enhance dynamic postural stability and fall prevention through designing more functional environments. This scoping review study suggests that the design of interventions and the evaluation of an environment to support fall prevention are topics for future research.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

Focused Clinical Question: Does a passive stretching protocol, whether immediate or long-term, improve range of motion and decrease posterior shoulder tightness in overhead athletes? Clinical Bottom Line: There is moderate level 2 evidence to support the incorporation of passive stretching for overhead athletes to increase range of motion or decrease posterior shoulder tightness.

Open access

Andreas M. Kasper, S. Andy Sparks, Matthew Hooks, Matthew Skeer, Benjamin Webb, Houman Nia, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

Rugby is characterized by frequent high-intensity collisions, resulting in muscle soreness. Players consequently seek strategies to reduce soreness and accelerate recovery, with an emerging method being cannabidiol (CBD), despite anti-doping risks. The prevalence and rationale for CBD use in rugby has not been explored; therefore, we recruited professional male players to complete a survey on CBD. Goodness of fit chi-square (χ2) was used to assess CBD use between codes and player position. Effects of age on use were determined using χ2 tests of independence. Twenty-five teams provided 517 player responses. While the majority of players had never used CBD (p < .001, V = 0.24), 26% had either used it (18%) or were still using it (8%). Significantly more CBD use was observed in rugby union compared with rugby league (p = .004, V = 0.13), but player position was not a factor (p = .760, V = 0.013). CBD use increased with players’ age (p < .001, V = 0.28), with mean use reaching 41% in the players aged 28 years and older category (p < .0001). The players using CBD primarily used the Internet (73%) or another teammate (61%) to obtain information, with only 16% consulting a nutritionist. The main reasons for CBD use were improving recovery/pain (80%) and sleep (78%), with 68% of players reporting a perceived benefit. These data highlight the need for immediate education on the risks of CBD, as well as the need to explore the claims regarding pain and sleep.

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M. Spencer Cain, Kyeongtak Song, J. Troy Blackburn, Kimmery Migel and Erik A. Wikstrom

Ankle joint mobilization has been shown to be effective at improving outcomes in those with chronic ankle instability (CAI), but the neuromuscular mechanisms are still unknown. We aimed to determine the immediate effect of a single Grade III anterior-to-posterior ankle joint mobilization bout on ankle musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) in those with CAI. Seventeen CAI participants had plantar flexor and fibularis MTS assessed before and after a 5-min joint mobilization treatment. MTS outcomes were estimated using the damped oscillation method. Fibularis (0.25 ± 0.41 N/m/kg, p = .028) but not plantar flexor MTS (−2.18 ± 14.35 N/m/kg, p = .539) changed following mobilization and exceeded the calculated minimal detectable change score (0.12 N/m/kg). Increased fibularis MTS may represent a neuromuscular mechanism by which ankle joint mobilizations improve postural control in those with CAI.

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William Boyer, James Churilla, Amy Miller, Trevor Gillum and Marshare Penny

Background: The effects of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscular strengthening activity (MSA) on all-cause mortality risk need further exploration among ethnically diverse populations. Purpose: To examine potential effect modification of race-ethnicity on meeting the PA guidelines and on all-cause mortality. Methods: The study sample (N = 14,384) included adults (20–79 y of age) from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PA was categorized into 6 categories based on the 2018 PA guidelines: category 1 (inactive), category 2 (insufficient PA and no MSA), category 3 (active and no MSA), category 4 (no PA and sufficient MSA), category 5 (insufficient PA and sufficient MSA), and category 6 (meeting both recommendations). Race-ethnic groups examined included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Cox-proportional hazard models were used. Results: Significant risk reductions were found for categories 2, 3, and 6 for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black. Among Mexican American, significant risk reductions were found in category 6. Conclusion: In support of the 2018 PA guidelines, meeting both the aerobic PA and MSA guidelines significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality independent of race-ethnicity. The effects of aerobic PA alone seem to be isolated to non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.

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Ainaz Shamshiri, Iman Rezaei, Ehsan Sinaei, Saeed Heidari and Ali Ghanbari

Context: The Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), originally designed to diagnose and assess athletes with concussion syndrome, is now widely used to evaluate postural stability. To interpret balance status, a normative database can be a reliable source. However, different anthropometric characteristics and sociocultural backgrounds across populations hinder the application of previously developed databases in different populations. Objective: The present study was designed to develop a normative data set for the general population of healthy Iranian adults according to their age groups and to study the correlation between BESS scores and the participants’ sex, height, weight, and body mass index. Design: A cross-sectional study. Participants: A total of 1051 community-dwelling adults aged 20–69 years not suffering from balance disorders, dizziness, or other neurological or musculoskeletal diseases were recruited and stratified into 5 different age groups by decade. Main Outcome Measures: The BESS tests were composed of single-leg, double-leg, and tandem stances, each on a rigid surface and a foam pad. The individuals maintained each position for 20 seconds with eyes closed. The assessor recorded the total number of errors as the individuals’ BESS score (range: 0–60). Results: Significant but weak correlations were found between BESS score and height (r = −.13, P < .001) and between BESS score and body mass index (r = .11, P < .001), and the difference between sexes in BESS score was statistically significant in the 50- to 59-year-old (P = .021) and 60- to 69-year-old (P < .001) groups. The BESS scores were significantly different between all age groups (P < .05), except between the 20- to 29-year-old and 30- to 39-year-old groups (P = 1.000) and between the 40- to 49-year-old and 50- to 59-year-old groups (P = .086). Conclusions: This study provided a normative database for different age groups of asymptomatic Iranian adults. The BESS score had weak correlations with height and body mass index and no correlation with weight, and significant differences were found between sexes in 50- to 69-year-old individuals. This study emphasizes the importance of obtaining specific normative data for different populations.

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Ruth P. Saunders, Rod K. Dishman, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background: Interventions promoting physical activity (PA) in youth have had limited success, in part because studies with methodological challenges have yielded an incomplete understanding of personal, social, and environmental influences on PA. This study described changes in these factors for subgroups of youth with initially high PA that decreased (Active-Decline) compared with children with initially low PA that decreased (Inactive-Decline) from fifth to ninth grades. Methods: Observational, prospective cohort design. Participants (n = 625) were fifth-grade children recruited in 2 school districts and followed from elementary to high school. Students and their parents responded to questionnaires to assess personal, social, and perceived physical environmental factors in the fifth (mean age = 10.5 [.5] y) and ninth (mean age = 14.7 [.6] y) grades. Analyses included a mixed-model 2-way repeated analysis of variances. Results: Children in the Active-Decline compared with those in the Inactive-Decline group showed a more favorable profile in 6 of 8 personal variables (perceived barriers, self-efficacy, self-schema, enjoyment, competence, and fitness motives) and 4 of 6 social variables (friend support, parent encouragement, parent support, and parent-reported support). Conclusions: The results suggest efforts to promote PA should target selected personal, social, and perceived environmental factors beginning before age 10 and continuing through adolescence.