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Okseon Lee, Euichang Choi, Victoria Goodyear, Mark Griffiths, Hyukjun Son, Hyunsoo Jung and Wonhee Lee

Although physical education (PE) teachers have increased access to digital/online continuous professional development activities, there are few robust accounts of how they engage with and experience these environments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine PE teachers’ participation patterns within self-directed online PE continuous professional development activities using mobile instant messenger. Methods: Data were generated from (a) 5,246 messages exchanged in the mobile instant messenger chatroom from 281 teachers, (b) semistructured interviews with 10 teachers, and (c) 1,275 messages posted by the 10 interviewed teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed for measures of central tendency, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively. Findings: Five patterns of PE teachers’ usage of mobile instant messenger were identified: (a) ringmasters, (b) passive uploaders, (c) active uploaders, (d) requesters, and (e) bystanders. Discussion: The findings suggest that each engagement pattern illustrates the differential goals of learning, types of interaction, and forms of participation by teachers engaged in online continuous professional development.

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Daniella M. DiGuglielmo, Mireille E. Kelley, Mark A. Espeland, Zachary A. Gregory, Tanner D. Payne, Derek A. Jones, Tanner M. Filben, Alexander K. Powers, Joel D. Stitzel and Jillian E. Urban

To reduce head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football, further understanding of the context in which head impacts occur and the associated biomechanics is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contact characteristics on HIE during player versus player contact scenarios in youth football. Head impact data and time-synchronized video were collected from 4 youth football games over 2 seasons in which opposing teams were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Coded contact characteristics included the player’s role in the contact, player speed and body position, contact height, type, and direction, and head contact surface. Head accelerations were compared among the contact characteristics using mixed-effects models. Among 72 instrumented athletes, 446 contact scenarios (n = 557 impacts) with visible opposing instrumented players were identified. When at least one player had a recorded impact, players who were struck tended to have higher rotational acceleration than players in striking positions. When both players had a recorded impact, lighter players and taller players experienced higher mean head accelerations compared with heavier players and shorter players. Understanding the factors influencing HIE during contact events in football may help inform methods to reduce head injury risk.

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Philip J. Morgan, Clare E. Collins, Alyce T. Barnes, Emma R. Pollock, Stevie-Lee Kennedy, Ryan J. Drew, Kristen L. Saunders, Jacqueline A. Grounds, Anna T. Rayward and Myles D. Young

Background: Few lifestyle programs for young children have targeted fathers. This study examined the feasibility of a lifestyle intervention for fathers and their preschool-aged children. Method: A total of 24 father/preschool child dyads were recruited from Newcastle, Australia, into a single-arm, feasibility trial (baseline and 3-mo postbaseline assessments). The 9-session program aimed to improve physical activity and dietary habits of fathers and children. A priori feasibility benchmarks targeted recruitment (15 dyads), eligibility rate (>60%), attendance (80%), retention (≥85%), and program acceptability (≥4 out of 5). Acceptability of data collection procedures, research team program/resource management, home-program compliance, and preliminary intervention outcomes were also assessed. Results: Feasibility benchmarks were surpassed for recruitment (24 dyads), eligibility rate (61.5%), attendance (89%), retention (100%), and program acceptability (4.6 out of 5). Data collection procedures were acceptable. Challenges included mothers reporting their own dietary intake rather than their child’s, children moving during body composition measurement, and resetting pedometers. Resource and program management were excellent. Most families met home-program requirements (83%). Preliminary intervention outcomes were encouraging for fathers and children. Conclusion: Program feasibility was demonstrated by excellent recruitment, attendance, acceptability, retention, program administration, and promising preliminary intervention outcomes. A few data collection difficulties were identified. A larger scale efficacy trial is warranted.

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Meena Makhija, Jasobanta Sethi, Chitra Kataria, Harpreet Singh, Paula M. Ludewig and Vandana Phadke

Two-dimensional fluoroscopic imaging allows measurement of small magnitude humeral head translations that are prone to errors due to optical distortion, out-of-plane imaging, repeated manual identification of landmarks, and magnification. This article presents results from in vivo and in vitro fluoroscopy-based experiments that measure the errors and variability in estimating the humeral head translated position in true scapular plane and axillary views. The errors were expressed as bias and accuracy. The variability with repeated digitization was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the standard error of measurement. Optical distortion caused underestimation of linear distances. The accuracy was 0.11 and 0.43 mm for in vitro and in vivo experiments, respectively, for optical distortion. The intrarater reliability was excellent for both views (ICC = .94 and .93), and interrater reliability was excellent (ICC = .95) for true scapular view but moderate (ICC = .74) for axillary views. The standard error of measurement ranged from 0.27 to 0.58 mm. The accuracy for the humeral head position in 10° out of true scapular plane images ranged from 0.80 to 0.87 mm. The current study quantifies the magnitude of error. The results suggest that suitable measures could be incorporated to minimize errors and variability for the measurement of glenohumeral parameters.

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Christoph Szedlak, Jo Batey, Matthew J. Smith and Matthew Church

This study aimed to examine elite, experienced strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches’ reflections on the effectiveness of psychosocial behaviors in S&C coaching. In particular, this study aimed to explore which psychosocial behaviors are essential, the process of how these might influence coaching practice, and how the development of psychosocial behaviors should be encouraged. Eight elite, experienced S&C coaches were recruited and partook in a semistructured interview. Using a reflexive thematic analysis, six themes were identified: understanding athlete’s needs, communicating effectively, caring and connecting with the athlete, practicing what you preach, the importance of reflective practice, and the contribution of formal training. The findings of this study enhance the literature by highlighting that elite, experienced S&C coaches perceive psychosocial behaviors to be essential in effective S&C coaching practice. In particular, the findings describe the processes of how identified psychosocial behaviors might positively influence athlete development by enhancing motivation, buy-in, and autonomy. In addition, the authors’ results suggest that current S&C coach development programs are limited in facilitating the learning of psychosocial behaviors. Thus, their findings strengthen the call for S&C coach educators to utilize constructivist learning strategies including facilitated reflection to encourage the development of essential psychosocial behaviors that contribute to the holistic development of the athlete.

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Joanna Horne, Nichola Kentzer, Lee Smith, Mike Trott and Jitka Vseteckova

Background: It is estimated that 17% of the UK adult population are informal carers, usually for a family member, with a majority reporting that they are not able to engage in physical activity as much as they would like. The aim of this review is to provide a greater understanding of the prevalence of, and barriers and facilitators to, physical activity of informal carers in the United Kingdom. Methods: A systematic review of relevant databases and grey literature was undertaken, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidance, from its inception until July 17, 2020. Results: Barriers to physical activity include increasing aging, not wanting to leave the caree alone, the caree being unable to take part in activities, health conditions, fatigue, lack of time, and difficulties in changing the routine for the caree. Facilitators include an appreciation of the benefits of engaging in exercise, previous participation in activities, group activities with similar people, and having some free time. Conclusions: Due to the paucity of research into the prevalence of, and barriers and facilitators to, physical activity in informal carers in the United Kingdom, this systematic review highlights the need for further research, focusing primarily on the physical activity of informal carers caring for individuals with a range of conditions. A further systematic review exploring these issues internationally is warranted.

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Katherine A.J. Daniels, Eleanor Drake, Enda King and Siobhán Strike

Cutting maneuvers can be executed at a range of angles and speeds, and these whole-body task descriptors are closely associated with lower-limb mechanical loading. Asymmetries in angle and speed when changing direction off the operated and nonoperated limbs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may therefore influence the interpretation of interlimb differences in joint-level biomechanical parameters. The authors hypothesized that athletes would reduce center-of-mass heading angle deflection and body rotation during the change-of-direction stance phase when cutting from the operated limb, and would compensate for this by orienting their center-of-mass trajectory more toward the new intended direction of travel prior to touchdown. A total of 144 male athletes 8 to 10 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed a maximum-effort sidestep cutting maneuver while kinematic, kinetic, and ground reaction force data were recorded. Peak ground reaction force and knee joint moments were lower when cutting from the operated limb. Center-of-mass heading angle deflection during stance phase was reduced for cuts performed from the operated limb and was negatively correlated with heading angle at touchdown. Between-limb differences in body orientation and horizontal velocity at touchdown were also observed. These systematic asymmetries in cut execution may require consideration when interpreting joint-level interlimb asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and are suggestive of the use of anticipatory control to co-optimize task achievement and mechanical loading.