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Okseon Lee, Euichang Choi, Victoria Goodyear, Mark Griffiths, Hyukjun Son, Hyunsoo Jung and Wonhee Lee

Although physical education (PE) teachers have increased access to digital/online continuous professional development activities, there are few robust accounts of how they engage with and experience these environments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine PE teachers’ participation patterns within self-directed online PE continuous professional development activities using mobile instant messenger. Methods: Data were generated from (a) 5,246 messages exchanged in the mobile instant messenger chatroom from 281 teachers, (b) semistructured interviews with 10 teachers, and (c) 1,275 messages posted by the 10 interviewed teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed for measures of central tendency, and qualitative data were analyzed inductively. Findings: Five patterns of PE teachers’ usage of mobile instant messenger were identified: (a) ringmasters, (b) passive uploaders, (c) active uploaders, (d) requesters, and (e) bystanders. Discussion: The findings suggest that each engagement pattern illustrates the differential goals of learning, types of interaction, and forms of participation by teachers engaged in online continuous professional development.

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Daniella M. DiGuglielmo, Mireille E. Kelley, Mark A. Espeland, Zachary A. Gregory, Tanner D. Payne, Derek A. Jones, Tanner M. Filben, Alexander K. Powers, Joel D. Stitzel and Jillian E. Urban

To reduce head impact exposure (HIE) in youth football, further understanding of the context in which head impacts occur and the associated biomechanics is needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of contact characteristics on HIE during player versus player contact scenarios in youth football. Head impact data and time-synchronized video were collected from 4 youth football games over 2 seasons in which opposing teams were instrumented with the Head Impact Telemetry (HIT) System. Coded contact characteristics included the player’s role in the contact, player speed and body position, contact height, type, and direction, and head contact surface. Head accelerations were compared among the contact characteristics using mixed-effects models. Among 72 instrumented athletes, 446 contact scenarios (n = 557 impacts) with visible opposing instrumented players were identified. When at least one player had a recorded impact, players who were struck tended to have higher rotational acceleration than players in striking positions. When both players had a recorded impact, lighter players and taller players experienced higher mean head accelerations compared with heavier players and shorter players. Understanding the factors influencing HIE during contact events in football may help inform methods to reduce head injury risk.

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Katherine A.J. Daniels, Eleanor Drake, Enda King and Siobhán Strike

Cutting maneuvers can be executed at a range of angles and speeds, and these whole-body task descriptors are closely associated with lower-limb mechanical loading. Asymmetries in angle and speed when changing direction off the operated and nonoperated limbs after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction may therefore influence the interpretation of interlimb differences in joint-level biomechanical parameters. The authors hypothesized that athletes would reduce center-of-mass heading angle deflection and body rotation during the change-of-direction stance phase when cutting from the operated limb, and would compensate for this by orienting their center-of-mass trajectory more toward the new intended direction of travel prior to touchdown. A total of 144 male athletes 8 to 10 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction performed a maximum-effort sidestep cutting maneuver while kinematic, kinetic, and ground reaction force data were recorded. Peak ground reaction force and knee joint moments were lower when cutting from the operated limb. Center-of-mass heading angle deflection during stance phase was reduced for cuts performed from the operated limb and was negatively correlated with heading angle at touchdown. Between-limb differences in body orientation and horizontal velocity at touchdown were also observed. These systematic asymmetries in cut execution may require consideration when interpreting joint-level interlimb asymmetries after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and are suggestive of the use of anticipatory control to co-optimize task achievement and mechanical loading.

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, Beltrán González, Carl Foster, Ana Belén Carballo-Leyenda and José G. Villa

Purpose: This study investigated the effect of cooldown modality (active vs passive) and duration (5, 10, and 15 min) on session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). Secondarily, the possible influence of training sessions’ demand on this effect was studied. Methods: A total of 16 youth male soccer players (15.7 [0.4] y) completed 2 standardized training sessions per week across 6 weeks. During weeks 1 to 2, 3 to 4, and 5 to 6, cooldown lengths of 15, 10, and 5 minutes were studied, respectively. Using a crossover design, players were randomly assigned to 2 groups and each group performed 1 of 2 different cooldown interventions. Passive and active cooldown interventions based on static stretching and running exercises were studied. Heart rate and sRPE were recorded during all training sessions. Results: The lowest sRPE was observed when passive cooldown was performed. When the hardest training sessions were considered, a significant main effect of cooldown modality (P < .01) and duration (P < .05) and an interaction effect between these variables (P < .05) on sRPE were obtained. The lowest (P < .01) sRPE was observed during the longest cooldown (15 min). Conclusion: The findings suggest that sRPE may be sensitive to the selected cooldown modality and duration, especially following the most demanding training sessions.

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Grégoire P. Millet, Rosalie Trigueira, Frédéric Meyer and Marcel Lemire

Aims: It has been hypothesized that altitude training may alter running mechanics due to several factors such as the slower training velocity with associated alteration in muscle activation and coordination. This would lead to an altered running mechanics attested by an increase in mechanical work for a given intensity and to the need to “re-establish” the neuromuscular coordination and running biomechanics postaltitude. Therefore, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that “live high—train high” would induce alteration in the running biomechanics (ie, longer contact time, higher vertical oscillations, decreased stiffness, higher external work). Methods: Before and 2 to 3 days after 3 weeks of altitude training (1850–2200 m), 9 national-level middle-distance (800–5000 m) male runners performed 2 successive 5-minute bouts of running at moderate intensity on an instrumented treadmill with measured ground reaction forces and gas exchanges. Immediately after the running trials, peak knee extensor torque was assessed during isometric maximal voluntary contraction. Results: Except for a slight (−3.0%; P = .04) decrease in vertical stiffness, no mechanical parameters (stride frequency and length, contact and flight times, ground reaction forces, and kinetic and potential work) were modified from prealtitude to postaltitude camp. Running oxygen cost was also unchanged. Discussion: The present study is the first one to report that “live high—train high” did not change the main running mechanical parameters, even when measured immediately after the altitude camp. This result has an important practical implication: there is no need for a corrective period at sea level for “normalizing” the running mechanics after an altitude camp.

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Steven M. Ortiz

Drawing from longitudinal qualitative research on the heteronormative sport marriage that primarily featured interviews with women married to male professional athletes, this article focuses on how women were affected by and managed their retired husbands’ physical and mental–emotional health issues. It explores the women’s continued use of self-management strategies they developed during their husband’s career as they offered increasingly challenging care work to their husbands and examines how long-held expectations about their caregiver role continued to contribute to post-career gender inequality in their marriages. It captures the women’s voices as they discovered that they were not sufficiently prepared for the emerging personal and relational complexities that emerged in retirement.

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Christa Spicer and Daniel B. Robinson

Feelings of isolation have long been found to be experienced by many teachers, particularly by those within some specialist disciplines, including physical education (PE). The potential effects of teacher isolation are undesirable and plentiful. They include a lessening of interest in one’s work, burnout, and/or an absence of community connection. Given the uniqueness of their discipline, PE teachers may especially be impacted by the following: Their discipline is “low status” and marginalized, they are frequently both physically and psychologically isolated from their peers, and they often are one of very few PE specialists in a school. Given these sorts of unique challenges for PE teachers, the authors undertook a scoping review of literature in order to gather and provide a comprehensive and up-to-date account of peer-reviewed literature related to PE teachers and isolation, as well as offer implications for PE research and practice.