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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su

Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie and Ben J. Dascombe

In professional team sports, the collection and analysis of athlete-monitoring data are common practice, with the aim of assessing fatigue and subsequent adaptation responses, examining performance potential, and minimizing the risk of injury and/or illness. Athlete-monitoring systems should be underpinned by appropriate data analysis and interpretation, to enable the rapid reporting of simple and scientifically valid feedback. Using the correct scientific and statistical approaches can improve the confidence of decisions made from athlete-monitoring data. However, little research has discussed and proposed an outline of the process involved in the planning, development, analysis, and interpretation of athlete-monitoring systems. This review discusses a range of methods often employed to analyze athlete-monitoring data to facilitate and inform decision-making processes. There is a wide range of analytical methods and tools that practitioners may employ in athlete-monitoring systems, as well as several factors that should be considered when collecting these data, methods of determining meaningful changes, and various data-visualization approaches. Underpinning a successful athlete-monitoring system is the ability of practitioners to communicate and present important information to coaches, ultimately resulting in enhanced athletic performance.

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ZáNean McClain, E. Andrew Pitchford and Jill Pawlowski

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a commonly used clinical assessment tool for body composition and bone mineral density, which is gaining popularity in athletic cohorts. Results from body composition scans are useful for athletic populations to track training and nutritional interventions, while bone mineral density scans are valuable for athletes at risk of developing stress fractures due to low bone mineral density. However, no research has ascertained if a novice technician (accredited but not experienced) could produce similar results to an experienced technician. Two groups of recreational athletes were scanned, one by an experienced technician, one by a novice technician. All participants were scanned twice with repositioning between scans. The experienced technician’s reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .989–.998; percentage change in mean = −0.01 to 0.10), precision (typical error as coefficient of variation percentage = 0.01–0.47; SEM% = 0.61–1.39), and sensitivity to change (smallest real difference percentage = 1.70–3.85) were similar; however, superior to those of the novice technician. The novice technician results were reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = .985–.997; percentage change in mean = −0.03 to 0.23), precision (typical error as coefficient of variation percentage = 0.03–0.75; SEM% = 1.06–2.12), and sensitivity to change (smallest real difference percentage = 2.73–5.86). Extensive experience, while valuable, is not a necessary requirement to produce quality results when undertaking whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning.

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

Purpose: To analyze whether exercise training conducted at night disturbs sleep and affects nocturnal cardiac autonomic control in high-level female athletes. Methods: A total of 18 high-level female soccer players (mean [SD] age 20.4 [2.1] y) wore actigraphs and heart-rate (HR) monitors during night sleep throughout night training days (n = 8) and resting days (n = 8), for 3 consecutive weeks. This was a longitudinal study that measured internal training load, sleep, nocturnal cardiac autonomic activity, and well-being ratings prior to training sessions. Results: Training load varied across training days (eg, training impulse range, mean [SD]; effect size, ES [95% confidence interval]: 72.9 [18.8] to 138.4 [29.6] a.u.; F 4,62 = 32.331; ηp2=.673 [.001–.16], large effect; P < .001). However, no differences in subjective well-being ratings were observed, although ES was large. Total sleep time (training days vs resting days: 07:17 [00:47] h vs 07:51 [00:42] h; ES = 0.742 [0.59–0.92], P = .005; moderate effect) and sleep-onset time (00:58 [00:19] h vs 00:44 [00:16] h; ES = 0.802 [0.68–0.94], P = .001; moderate effect) were negatively affected after night training. In addition, small effects were detected for wake-up time, time in bed, and sleep latency (P > .05). No differences were detected in HR variability during sleep (range of lnRMSSD: 4.3 [0.4] to 4.5 [0.4] ln[ms] vs 4.6 [0.3] to 4.5 [0.4] ln[ms]; F 3,52 = 2.148; P > .05; ηp2=.112 [.01–.25], medium effect), but HR during sleep was significantly higher after training days (range of HR: 56 [4] to 63 [7] beats/min vs 54 [4] to 57 [6] beats/min; F 2,32 = 15.956; P < .001; ηp2=.484 [.20–.63], large effect). Conclusion: Overall, the results indicate that exercise training conducted at night may disturb sleep and affect HR, whereas limited effects can be expected in HR variability assessed during sleep in high-level female soccer players.

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Simon Gavanda, Stephan Geisler, Oliver Jan Quittmann and Thorsten Schiffer

Purpose: Muscle mass, strength, and power are important factors for performance. To improve these characteristics, periodized resistance training is used. However, there is no consensus regarding the most effective periodization model. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of block (BLOCK) vs daily undulating periodization (DUP) on body composition, hypertrophy, strength, performance, and power in adolescent American football players. Methods: A total of 47 subjects participated in this study (mean [SD] age = 17 [0.8] y, strength training experience = 0.93 [0.99] y). Premeasurements and postmeasurements consisted of body mass (BM); fat mass; relative fat mass; fat-free mass (FFM); muscle mass (MM); muscle thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and triceps brachii (TB); 1-repetition-maximum back squat (BS) and bench press (BP); countermovement jump (CMJ); estimated peak power (Wpeak) from vertical jump performance; medicine-ball put (MBP); and 40-yd sprint. Subjects were randomly assigned in either the BLOCK or DUP group prior to the 12-wk intervention period consisting of 3 full-body sessions per week. Results: Both groups displayed significantly higher BM (P < .001), FFM (P < .001), MM (P < .001), RF (P < .001), VL (P < .001), TB (P < .001), BS (P < .001), BP (P < .001), CMJ (P < .001), Wpeak (P < .001), and MBP (P < .001) and significantly lower sprint times (P < .001) after 12 wk of resistance training, with no difference between groups. Conclusions: Resistance training was effective to increase muscle mass, strength, power, and performance in adolescent athletes. BLOCK and DUP affect anthropometric measures and physical performance equally.

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Pål Haugnes, Per-Øyvind Torvik, Gertjan Ettema, Jan Kocbach and Øyvind Sandbakk

Purpose: To investigate the contribution from maximal speed (Vmax) and %Vmax to the finish sprint speed obtained in a cross-country sprint in the classical and skating style, as well as the coinciding changes in kinematic patterns and the effect of pacing strategy on the %Vmax. Methods: Twelve elite male cross-country skiers performed two 80-m Vmax tests on flat terrain using the classical double-poling and skating G3 techniques, followed by 4 simulated 1.4-km sprint time trials, performed with conservative (controlled start) and positive (hard start) pacing strategies in both styles with a randomized order. In all cases, these time trials were finalized by sprinting maximally over the last 80 m (the Vmax section). Results: Approximately 85% of Vmax was obtained in the finish sprint of the 1.4-km competitions, with Vmax and %Vmax contributing similarly (R 2 = 51–78%) to explain the overall variance in finish sprint speed in all 4 cases (P < .05). The changes in kinematic pattern from the Vmax to the finish sprint included 11–22% reduced cycle rate in both styles (P < .01), without any changes in cycle length. A 3.6% faster finish sprint speed, explained by higher cycle rate, was found by conservative pacing in classic style (P < .001), whereas no difference was seen in skating. Conclusions: Vmax ability and %Vmax contributed similarly to explain the finish sprint speed, both in the classic and skating styles, and independent of pacing strategy. Therefore, sprint cross-country skiers should concurrently develop both these capacities and employ technical strategies where a high cycle rate can be sustained when fatigue occurs.

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Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A. Hastie and Kamden Strunk

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of ability grouping on game performance and physical activity levels of elementary school students during an invasion game. Method: Forty-eight fifth-grade students (22 girls) participated in eight games of “Over the Line Ball.” Four of these games saw students in matched-ability teams (either all higher skilled or all lower skilled players), whereas in four games teams consisted of two higher skilled and two lower skilled players. A full factorial mixed analysis of variance was conducted, where ability grouping served as a within-subjects variable, and student gender and skill level served as between-subjects variables. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to determine the influence of game performance, grouping condition, and gender on moderate–vigorous physical activity. Results: There was a disordinal interaction between skill level and ability grouping on each of three performance variables (percentage success, rate of play, and game performance). Students’ skill level and the homogeneity of games provided the best prediction of moderate–vigorous physical activity over and above the game performance scores alone. Conclusion: Grouping students into matched-ability-level games increased opportunities for success and physical activity for lower skilled students.

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Martina A. Maggioni, Matteo Bonato, Alexander Stahn, Antonio La Torre, Luca Agnello, Gianluca Vernillo, Carlo Castagna and Giampiero Merati

Purpose: To investigate the effects of ball drills and repeated-sprint-ability training during the regular season in basketball players. Methods: A total of 30 players were randomized into 3 groups: ball-drills training (BDT, n = 12, 4 × 4 min, 3 vs 3 with 3-min passive recovery), repeated-sprint-ability training (RSAT, n = 9, 3 × 6 × 20-m shuttle running with 20-s and 4-min recovery), and general basketball training (n = 9, basketball technical/tactical exercises), as control group. Players were tested before and after 8 wk of training using the following tests: V˙O2max, squat jump, countermovement jump, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YIRT1), agility T test, line-drill test, 5-/10-/20-m sprints, and blood lactate concentration. A custom-developed survey was used to analyze players’ technical skills. Results: After training, significant improvements were seen in YIRT1 (BDT P = .014, effect size [ES] ± 90% CI = 0.8 ± 0.3; RSAT P = .022, ES ± 90% CI = 0.7 ± 0.3), the agility T test (BDT P = .018, ES ± 90% CI = 0.7 ± 0.5; RSAT P = .037, ES ± 90% CI = 0.7 ± 0.5), and the line-drill test (BDT P = .010, ES ± 90% CI = 0.3 ± 0.1; RSAT P < .0001, ES ± 90% CI = 0.4 ± 0.1). In the RSAT group, only 10-m sprint speeds (P = .039, ES ± 90% CI = 0.3 ± 0.2) and blood lactate concentration (P = .004, ES ± 90% CI = 0.8 ± 1.1) were improved. Finally, technical skills were increased in BDT regarding dribbling (P = .038, ES ± 90% CI = 0.8 ± 0.6), shooting (P = .036, ES ± 90% CI = 0.8 ± 0.8), passing (P = .034, ES ± 90% CI = 0.9 ± 0.3), rebounding (P = .023, ES ± 90% CI = 1.1 ± 0.3), defense (P = .042, ES ± 90% CI = 0.5 ± 0.5), and offense (P = .044, ES ± 90% CI = 0.4 ± 0.4) skills. Conclusions: BDT and RSAT are both effective in improving the physical performance of basketball players. BDT had also a positive impact on technical skills. Basketball strength and conditioning professionals should include BDT as a routine tool to improve technical skills and physical performance simultaneously throughout the regular training season.

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

Terbutaline is a prohibited drug except for athletes with a therapeutic use exemption certificate; terbutaline’s effects on endurance performance are relatively unknown. Purpose: To investigate the effects of 2 therapeutic (2 and 4 mg) inhaled doses of terbutaline on 3-km running time-trial performance. Methods: A total of 8 men (age 24.3 [2.4] y; weight 77.6 [8] kg; and height 179.5 [4.3] cm) and 8 women (age 22.4 [3] y; weight 58.6 [6] kg; and height 163 [9.2] cm) free from respiratory disease and illness provided written informed consent. Participants completed 3-km running time trials on a nonmotorized treadmill on 3 separate occasions following placebo and 2- and 4-mg inhaled terbutaline in a single-blind, repeated-measures design. Urine samples (15 min postexercise) were analyzed for terbutaline concentration. Data were analyzed using 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance, and significance was set at P < .05 for all analyses. Results: No differences were observed for completion times (1103 [201] s, 1106 [195] s, 1098 [165] s; P = .913) for the placebo or 2- and 4-mg inhaled trials, respectively. Lactate values were higher (P = .02) after 4 mg terbutaline (10.7 [2.3] mmol·L−1) vs placebo (8.9 [1.8] mmol·L−1). Values of forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) were greater after inhalation of 2 mg (5.08 [0.2]; P = .01) and 4 mg terbutaline (5.07 [0.2]; P = .02) compared with placebo (4.83 [0.5] L) postinhalation. Urinary terbutaline concentrations were mean 306 (288) ng·mL−1 and 435 (410) ng·mL−1 (P = .2) and peak 956 ng·mL−1 and 1244 ng·mL−1 after 2 and 4 mg inhaled terbutaline, respectively. No differences were observed between the male and female participants. Conclusions: Therapeutic dosing of terbutaline does not lead to an improvement in 3-km running performance despite significantly increased FEV1. The findings suggest that athletes using inhaled terbutaline at high therapeutic doses to treat asthma will not gain an ergogenic advantage during 3-km running performance.