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Judith Jiménez-Díaz, Karla Chaves-Castro and Walter Salazar

Background: To use the meta-analytic approach to assess the effectiveness of different types of movement programs on motor competence (MC) in participants of all ages. Methods: Studies were retrieved by searching 13 databases and included when criteria were met. Studies were selected, and data were extracted by 2 authors. Random effects models using the standardized mean difference effect size (ES) were used to pool results. Risk of bias, heterogeneity, and inconsistency were examined. Results: Thirty-six studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 374 ESs were calculated and partitioned into 4 groups (motor intervention, free play, physical education classes, and control group). Statistically significant improvements in MC were observed for the motor intervention (ES = 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.82; n = 36), as well as for free play (ES = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.57; n = 5), physical education classes (ES = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.97; n = 15), and smaller statistically significant differences in MC were observed for the control groups (ES = 0.16; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.31; n = 6). Conclusions: All 4 groups analyzed improved MC in children, adolescents, and young adults. However, motor interventions were superior to all other groups for improving MC.

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Gislaine S. Kogure, Cristiana L. Miranda-Furtado, Daiana C.C. Pedroso, Victor B. Ribeiro, Matheus C. Eiras, Rafael C. Silva, Lisandra C. Caetano, Rui A. Ferriani, Rodrigo T. Calado and Rosana M. dos Reis

Background: Physical activity is prescribed as a component of primary management for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This nonrandomized, therapeutic, open, single-arm study investigated the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) on obesity indices in women with PCOS, and the relationship between obesity indices and telomere content. Methods: A total of 45 women with PCOS and 52 with non-PCOS (controls), aged 18 to 37 years, with body mass indexes of 18 to 39.9 kg/m2, performed three 1-hour sessions of PRT per week, for 16 weeks. Before and after PRT, measures included anthropometric indices and regions of interest of fat mass distribution, quantified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, metabolic and hormonal parameters, and telomere content. The general linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of PRT. Results: PRT did reduce the waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference, and the index of conicity among PCOS (P < .01). However, PRT did not influence regions of interest, body mass index, and WHR. After PRT, the telomere content was associated with regions of interest and anthropometric indices in whole group independent of PCOS (P < .05). Conclusion: Resistance exercise improves obesity indices in PCOS, independent of changes in body weight, and the relationship between telomeres and obesity parameters in PCOS remain to be fully clarified.

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of protein intake beyond habitual intakes associated with resistance training on metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related parameters, isokinetic strength, and body composition in health older women. A total of 30 older women (68.8 ± 4.3 years) participated in this investigation and were assigned to receive 35 g of whey protein or placebo combined with resistance training, over 12-weeks, three times per week. Blood samples, blood pressure, dietary intake, strength, and body composition were assessed before and after the intervention period. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied for comparisons. Both groups improved the skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, resistance, reactance, and MetS Z-score risk. However, the improvements in skeletal muscle mass, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk were significantly greater in protein group when compared with control group. Moreover, protein group significantly decreased %body fat when compared with control group. Higher protein intake combined with resistance training promoted greater improvements in skeletal muscle mass, %body fat, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk in older women.

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Martyn Rothwell, Joseph Stone and Keith Davids

Social, cultural, and historical constraints can influence attitudes towards learning, developing, and performing in sport. A recent conceptualization of these environmental constraints in athlete development pathways is a form of life, which describes the values, beliefs, traditions, customs, and behaviors that contribute to an athlete’s development. Although a form of life can have a powerful influence on athlete development, research exploring this relationship is limited. In this article we explore the form of life in British rugby league football player development contexts to clarify how social, cultural, and historical constraints influence the development of rugby league players in the United Kingdom. Twenty-four coaches were interviewed through individual semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Findings show how forms of life in rugby league player development pathways are established and maintained by the complex interactions between the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem that shape and guide the development of players. We recommend that player development pathways in sport underpin practice with a theoretical framework of the learning process to protect athletes from social, cultural, and historical constraints that are not conducive to their development.

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Amy Rauer and Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle

The current study explored concordance in spouses’ perceptions about exercise and how these perceptions predicted observed and self-reported marital functioning using a sample of 64 older married couples. Although couples were similarly motivated to exercise, their views on their physical fitness and potential barriers to exercise were uncorrelated. Dyadic analyses suggested that spouses’ exercise perceptions, particularly husbands’, were associated with how spouses treated each other during a marital problem-solving task and with their concurrent and future marital satisfaction. Exploring how spouses’ views of exercise are related to their marital functioning and for whom these links are most salient may highlight potential opportunities and challenges for those wishing to strengthen couples’ individual and relational well-being through exercise.

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

The aim of this study was to analyze the association between muscle quality index (MQI) and phase angle (PhA) after a program of progressive resistance training (RT) in older women. Sixty-six older women with previous RT experience (68.8 ± 4.6 years, 156.6 ± 5.3 cm, 66.0 ± 13.0 kg, and 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2) underwent 12 weeks of RT (3 ×/week, eight exercises, and 10–15 repetition maximum). Anthropometry, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum tests), and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and spectral bioimpedance) were measured pre- and posttraining. There were observed significant increases for PhA, MQI, muscular strength, muscle mass, and reactance, whereas no significant changes in body fat and resistance were found. A significant correlation was observed between the RT-induced relative changes in PhA and MQI (r = .620). We conclude that improvements in MQI induced by RT are associated with increases in PhA. Therefore, PhA may be a valid tool to track changes in MQI after 12 weeks of RT in older women.

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Jesudas E. Menon, David J. Stensel, Keith Tolfrey and Stephen F. Burns

Purpose: This study examined how manipulating meal frequency, with and without exercise, affects postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG). Methods: Fourteen sedentary men completed four 2-day trials in a noncounterbalanced random cross-over order: (1) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake without exercise (1-CON), (2) consumption of 2 smaller high-fat milkshakes without exercise (2-CON), (3) consumption of 1 large high-fat milkshake with exercise (1-EX), and (4) consumption of 2 small high-fat milkshakes with exercise (2-EX)—total energy intake was standardized across trials. On day 1, participants rested (1-CON and 2-CON) or walked briskly for 60 minutes (1-EX and 2-EX). On day 2, participants consumed either a single large high-fat milkshake (75% fat; 1-CON and 1-EX) for breakfast or 2 smaller isoenergetic milkshakes (2-CON and 2-EX) for breakfast and lunch. Plasma TAG were measured fasting and for 7 hours after breakfast. Results: Peak incremental TAG was 30% lower on 2-EX than 1-CON (P = .04, d = 0.38). Postprandial TAG increased more rapidly in the first 4 hours in 1-CON than other trials; but at 6 hours, TAG was exaggerated in 2-CON compared with 1-CON. Conclusions: Increasing meal frequency after exercise, without altering overall fat intake, attenuates postprandial TAG.

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

Background: Exercise referral schemes (ERS) are prescribed programs to tackle physical inactivity and associated noncommunicable disease. Inconsistencies in reporting, recording, and delivering ERS make it challenging to identify what works, why, and for whom. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guided this narrative review of reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of ERS. Inclusion criteria and quality assessed through A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR). Data on uptake, attendance, and adherence were extracted. Results: Eleven reviews met inclusion criteria. AMSTAR quality was medium. Uptake ranged between 35% and 81%. Groups more likely to take up ERS included (1) females and (2) older adults. Attendance ranged from 12% to 49%. Men were more likely to attend ERS. Effect of medical diagnosis upon uptake and attendance was inconsistent. Exercises prescribed were unreported; therefore, adherence to exercise prescriptions was unreported. The influence of theoretically informed approaches on uptake, attendance, and adherence was generally lacking; however, self-determination, peer support, and supervision were reported as influencing attendance. Conclusions: There was insufficient reporting across studies about uptake, attendance, and adherence. Complex interventions such as ERS require consistent definitions, recording, and reporting of these key facets, but this is not evident from the existing literature.

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Eric T. Hyde, John D. Omura, Kathleen B. Watson, Janet E. Fulton and Susan A. Carlson

Background: To estimate the proportion of adults’ and parents’ knowledge of the adult aerobic and youth physical activity guidelines, respectively, in the United States. Methods: Data were analyzed from a national sample of adults in the 2017 ConsumerStyles survey. Prevalence of knowledge of the adult aerobic guideline (ie, 150 min/wk of moderate-intensity activity) was estimated among all respondents (n = 3910) and of the youth guideline (ie, 60 min/d of physical activity on 7 d/wk) among parents (n = 1288). Odds ratios were estimated using logistic regression models adjusting for demographic characteristics. Results: Overall, 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.0–3.1) of adults and 23.0% (95% confidence interval, 20.5–25.7) of parents were knowledgeable of the adult aerobic and youth guidelines, respectively. After adjustment, odds of knowledge of the adult guideline differed significantly by sex and physical activity level, whereas knowledge of the youth guideline differed by parental education level. Conclusions: Despite the release of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans nearly a decade ago, most US adults and parents lack knowledge of the adult aerobic and youth physical activity guidelines. Effective communication strategies may help raise awareness of current and future editions of national guidelines for physical activity.

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

Background: Physical activity (PA) is said to be beneficial to many bodily functions. However, the effects of PA in the brain are still inadequately known. The authors aimed to uncover possible brain modulation linked with PA. Here, they combine 4 of their studies with monozygotic twins, who were within-pair discordant in PA for a minimum of 1 year. Methods: The authors performed brain imaging, brain electrophysiology, and cardiovascular and body composition assessments, and collected questionnaire-based data. The present synopsis elucidates the differences associated with differing PA history in conditions without genetic variability. They present new structural and electrophysiological results. Participants, healthy, 45 male monozygotic twins (mean age 34.5 [1.5] y) differed in aerobic capacity and fat percentage (P < .001). Results: More active co-twins showed larger gray matter volumes in striatal, prefrontal, and hippocampal regions, and smaller gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate area than less active co-twins. Functionally, visual and somatosensory automatic change detection processes differed between more and less active co-twins. Conclusions: In monozygotic twins, who differed in their PA history, differences were observed in identifiable anatomic brain locations involved with motor control and memory functions, as well as in electrophysiological measures detecting brain’s automatic processes. Better aerobic capacity may modify brain morphology and sensory function.