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  • Psychology and Behavior in Sport/Exercise x
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Benjamin J.I. Schellenberg, Jérémie Verner-Filion and Patrick Gaudreau

The aim of this research was to test if the ways passionate sport fans respond immediately after an important team victory depend on the extent to which passion is harmonious or obsessive. Fans of Liverpool F.C. (n = 299) and the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (n = 334) completed online surveys shortly after their teams had won an important championship game. Fans answered questions assessing passion and the extent to which they engaged in savoring (i.e., attempting to maintain, augment, or prolong positive emotions) and dampening (i.e., attempting to stifle positive emotions) after the victory. In both samples, the authors found that both harmonious and obsessive passion predicted greater savoring, but only obsessive passion predicted greater dampening. These findings build on previous research and suggest an additional reason for which harmonious and obsessive passion among sport fans tend to predict more and less adaptive outcomes, respectively.

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Sandra C. Webber, Francine Hahn, Lisa M. Lix, Brenda J. Tittlemier, Nancy M. Salbach and Ruth Barclay

Objective: To determine the optimal threshold, based on cadence and lifestyle counts per minute, to detect outdoor walking in mobility-limited older adults. Methods: Older adults (N = 25, median age: 77.0 years, interquartile range: 10.5) wore activity monitors during 80 outdoor walks. Walking bouts were identified manually (reference standard) and compared with identification using cadence thresholds (≥30, ≥35, ≥40, ≥45, and ≥50 steps/min) and >760 counts per minute using low frequency extension analysis. Results: Median walking bout duration was 10.5 min (interquartile range 4.8) and median outdoor walking speed was 0.70 m/s (interquartile range 0.20). Cadence thresholds of ≥30, ≥35, and ≥40 steps/min demonstrated high sensitivity (1.0, 95% confidence intervals [0.95, 1.0]) to detect walking bouts; estimates for specificity and positive predictive value were highest for ≥40 steps/min. Conclusion: A cadence threshold of ≥40 steps/min is recommended for detecting sustained outdoor walking in this population.

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Johannes Carl, Gorden Sudeck and Klaus Pfeifer

Background: The World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030 states that physical activity interventions should strengthen peoples’ competencies for health. Yet, frameworks that bundle pivotal competencies for a healthy and physically active lifestyle have not been extensively discussed in the past. Results: In the present article, the authors therefore present the model of Physical Activity-related Health Competence (PAHCO), an integrative structure model including the 3 areas of movement competence, control competence, and self-regulation competence. After providing a rationale for the use of the competence concept, the authors focus on implications from the PAHCO model to guide interventions for the promotion of a healthy and physically active lifestyle. The authors argue that the PAHCO model is located at the interface between health literacy and physical literacy, research areas that have gained increasing scholarly attention in recent years. In addition, PAHCO appears to be compatible with the concept of health capability because it can represent the important aspect of agency. Conclusions: The article concludes with a scientific positioning of model components and some empirical results that have been accumulated so far.

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Ashley B. West, Adam R. Konopka, Kelli A. LeBreton, Benjamin F. Miller, Karyn L. Hamilton and Heather J. Leach

This study examined the feasibility and effects of a 1-hr physical activity (PA) behavior change (PABC) discussion session on PA, 12 weeks after completing an exercise trial. Adults at high risk of Type II diabetes were randomized to the PABC or a control group. PA was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Chi-square tests compared the proportion of participants classified as moderately active or greater at the 12-week follow-up. Participants (N = 50) were M = 61.8 ± 5.5 years old and mostly female (80%). All participants completed the PABC discussion session, and compliance with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at 12-week follow-up was 78%. Barrier self-efficacy increased immediately following the PABC (MΔ0.5 ± 0.9; t(22) = −2.45, p = .023). At 12-week follow-up, 88% in the PABC were moderately active or greater, compared with 50% in the control (p = .015). Incorporating a PABC discussion session as part of an exercise efficacy trial was feasible and may help improve PA maintenance.

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Jing Liao, Yung-Jen Yang and Dong (Roman) Xu

Background: Evidence suggests the importance of physical activity and social engagement in cognitive preservation. Group-based dancing combining exercise and prosocial features may generate physical and cognitive benefits. Objectives: To investigate the association between multiyear habitual square dancing and domain-specific cognitive function, and assess the relative importance and joint impact of physical activity and social activity on cognition. Methods: Using the cross-sectional propensity score matching method, the study compared the mental status, episodic memory, and overall cognitive performances of 145 amateur female square-dancing participants (aged ≥45 y) to their sociodemographic- and health-status–matched 222 nondancing counterparts, selected from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. Results: The authors found a positive association between multiyear square dancing (average 8 y) and overall cognitive performances (mean difference = 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65 to 4.02), which was apparent in processing capacity (2.29; 95% CI, 1.51 to 3.07) but not in memory (0.55; 95% CI, −0.13 to 1.23). The hypothesized synergic effect of physical activity and social activity on cognition was only observed in group-based exercises embodying these 2 components simultaneously. Conclusions: Long-term square dancing as one type of physically and socially engaging activities may preserve cognition. Future longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to further clarify the causal relationship.

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Renata M. Bielemann, Marysabel P.T. Silveira, Bárbara H. Lutz, Vanessa I.A. Miranda, Maria Cristina Gonzalez, Soren Brage, Ulf Ekelund and Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi

Background: Previous observations regarding association between physical activity (PA) and use of medicines among older adults are derived from self-reported PA. This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA and polypharmacy among older adults with multimorbidity in Southern Brazil. Methods: This study included 875 noninstitutionalized older people, aged ≥60 years. Prescribed medicines used in the 15 days prior to the interview, socioeconomic data, and the presence of comorbidities were self-reported. Accelerometers were used to evaluate PA following the interview. Results: Prevalence of polypharmacy (≥5 medicines) was 38.3% (95% confidence interval, 35.0–41.5); those belonging to the lowest tertile of PA used more medicines. The authors observed a significant inverse association for polypharmacy between men belonging to the second and third tertiles of PA for objectively measured overall PA and light PA compared with the most inactive tertile. For women, the association between PA and polypharmacy was significant for overall, light, and moderate to vigorous PA only in the third tertile. Conclusions: Overall, light and moderate to vigorous PA were inversely associated to polypharmacy and differed by gender. Promotion of PA in older adults may be an effective intervention to reduce the number of medicines used independent of the number of comorbidities.

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Ya-Chen Liu, Wen-Wen Yang, I-Yao Fang, Hope Li-Ling Pan, Wei-Han Chen and Chiang Liu

Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) is installed in parks to promote health, particularly among seniors. However, no quantitative study has investigated its effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of 12 weeks of OFE training on functional fitness in seniors. Forty-two active seniors were recruited and randomly assigned into OFE and control groups. The OFE group underwent 12 weeks of training using popular OFE for cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and strength, whereas participants in the control group were asked to maintain their previous lifestyles. The senior fitness test was assessed before and after the 12-week period. Unexpectedly, the results showed no significant improvement within or between the groups after the 12-week training in all parameters (p > .05). In conclusion, the 12-week OFE training failed to enhance functional fitness among active seniors. Potential reasons for the limited training effects might be lack of resistance components and diversity of the OFE design and installation.

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Maureen R. Weiss

Children and youth participate in physical activities to develop and demonstrate physical competence, attain social acceptance and approval, and experience enjoyment. Satisfying these motives enhances interest in sustaining physical activity, which contributes to improved motor skills, self-confidence, social relationships, and other positive outcomes. My essay explores motor skill development and youth physical activity through a social psychological lens and the benefits of integrating scientific knowledge from our respective fields to inform research and professional practice. Motor development and sport psychology researchers can collaborate to address critical issues related to motor and perceived competence and physical activity. I recommend five ways for integrating knowledge: (1) applying social psychological theory to guide research questions, (2) using more longitudinal designs, (3) using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods, (4) designing studies on physical literacy, and (5) employing a positive youth development (PYD) approach for improving motor and social-emotional skills. These efforts can assist teachers, coaches, and parents in creating opportunities for youth to learn and improve fundamental motor and sport skills and to achieve feelings of competence, autonomy, relatedness, and joy for motivating a lifetime of physical activity.

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Christopher Johansen, Kim D. Reynolds, Jennifer Wolch, Jason Byrne, Chih-Ping Chou, Sarah Boyle, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Brianna A. Lienemann, Susan Weaver and Michael Jerrett

Background: Urban trails are a useful resource to promote physical activity. This study identified features of urban trails that correlated with trail use. Methods: Multiuse urban trails were selected in Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles. An audit of each trail was completed using the Systematic Pedestrian and Cyclist Environmental Scan for Trails instrument, identifying built environmental features. A self-report of trail use was obtained from trailside residents (N = 331) living within 1 mile of each trail. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regressions controlled for trail time from home and motivation for physical activity. Results: Positive associations with the past month’s hours on the trail were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, vegetation maintenance, and trail crowding, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. Positive associations with dichotomous trail use were observed for the presence of distance signs, vegetation height, and vegetation maintenance, and a negative association was observed for the presence of crossings on the trail. Conclusions: These correlates should be confirmed in other studies and, if supported, should be considered in the promotion and design of urban trails.

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Yasmín Ezzatvar, Joaquín Calatayud, Lars L. Andersen and José Casaña

Background: Musculoskeletal pain (MP) is common among health care professionals, including physical therapists (PTs). The physically demanding nature of their work might contribute to increase MP rates. Strength training has a positive effect on musculoskeletal health and MP. However, no studies have evaluated the association of strength training during leisure time on MP among PTs. This study aims to analyze the association between frequency and intensity of strength training during leisure time and MP in the back, neck–shoulder, and arm–hand among PTs. Methods: Data on MP and intensity and frequency of strength training were obtained using a questionnaire responded by 1006 PTs. The odds for having lower level of MP as a function of intensity or frequency of the strength training were estimated using binary logistic regression. Results: High-intensity strength training showed strong associations with lower intensity of MP in neck–shoulder (odds ratio = 5.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–18.92), arm–hand (odds ratio = 5.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–24.51), and back (odds ratio = 5.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.28). However, frequency and lower intensities were not significantly associated with MP in any body part. Conclusions: High-intensity strength training is strongly associated with lower levels of MP in arm–hand, neck–shoulder, and back, whereas no association was found with frequency or lower intensities.